Selective repression of retinoic acid target genes by RIP140 during induced tumor cell differentiation of pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma cells
- Kelly C Heim†1,
- Kristina A White†1,
- Dexin Deng1,
- Craig R Tomlinson1, 3,
- Jason H Moore2, 3,
- Sarah J Freemantle1, 3 and
- Michael J Spinella1, 3Email author
© Heim et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2007
Received: 01 July 2007
Accepted: 19 September 2007
Published: 19 September 2007
The use of retinoids as anti-cancer agents has been limited due to resistance and low efficacy. The dynamics of nuclear receptor coregulation are incompletely understood. Cell-and context-specific activities of nuclear receptors may be in part due to distinct coregulator complexes recruited to distinct subsets of target genes. RIP140 (also called NRIP1) is a ligand-dependent corepressor that is inducible with retinoic acid (RA). We had previously shown that RIP140 limits RA induced tumor cell differentiation of embryonal carcinoma; the pluriopotent stem cells of testicular germ cell tumors. This implies that RIP140 represses key genes required for RA-mediated tumor cell differentiation. Identification of these genes would be of considerable interest.
To begin to address this issue, microarray technology was employed to elucidate in a de novo fashion the global role of RIP140 in RA target gene regulation of embryonal carcinoma. Subclasses of genes were affected by RIP140 in distinct manners.
Interestingly, approximately half of the RA-dependent genes were unaffected by RIP140. Hence, RIP140 appears to discriminate between different classes of RA target genes. In general, RIP140-dependent gene expression was consistent with RIP140 functioning to limit RA signaling and tumor cell differentiation. Few if any genes were regulated in a manner to support a role for RIP140 in "active repression". We also demonstrated that RIP140 silencing sensitizes embryonal carcinoma cells to low doses of RA.
Together the data demonstrates that RIP140 has profound effects on RA-mediated gene expression in this cancer stem cell model. The RIP140-dependent RA target genes identified here may be particularly important in mediating RA-induced tumor cell differentiation and the findings suggest that RIP140 may be an attractive target to sensitize tumor cells to retinoid-based differentiation therapy. We discuss these data in the context of proposed models of RIP140-mediated repression.
Retinoids are used in the clinic to prevent and treat select tumors through the process of induced tumor cell differentiation, yet the efficacy of retinoids toward the most common neoplasms has been limited . Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which tumors are resistant to the ability of retinoids to affect tumor growth and progression. Embryonal carcinoma (EC) is a model of embryonic development as well as tumor cell differentiation . EC is considered to be the malignant counterpart to embryonic stem cells because of a remarkable degree of genetic, morphologic, biochemical and gene expression similarity [3, 4]. EC cells are pluripotent and considered to be the stem cells of male germ cell tumors [3, 4]. In response to all trans retinoic acid (RA), the pluripotent human EC cell line, NT2/D1, differentiates toward a neuronal lineage with associated loss of cell growth and tumorigenicity [5, 6].
Retinoids mediate their effects by binding to and activating retinoid specific nuclear receptors, RARs and RXRs [7, 8]. Corepressors, such as NCoR and SMRT, bind to nuclear receptors in the absence of ligand to assemble large repressor complexes containing chromatin repressing and histone deacetylase activity [9, 10]. Ligand-bound receptors recruit coactivators, such as the p160 family, which recruit histone acetyltransferases and other chromatin remodeling proteins to induce gene transcription .
This classic coregulator paradigm does not fully explain the recent evidence that ligands such as retinoids, estrogen, and vitamin D3, apparently also actively suppress gene expression [12, 13]. These data challenge the current coregulator paradigm by implying that repressor complexes may participate in active repression of ligand-bound receptors. RIP140 is the first member of a unique class of ligand-dependent corepressors [14–18]. RIP140 exhibits intrinsic repression activity when fused to the Gal4-DNA binding domain, and directly recruits histone deacetylases as well as the transcriptional repressor, c-terminal binding protein (CTBP), to nuclear receptors [19, 20]. In addition, RIP140 inhibits the transactivation function of several ligand bound nuclear receptors [14–18]. Since RIP140 preferentially binds and suppresses agonist bound nuclear receptors, it provides a candidate mechanism for active repression of several members of the nuclear receptor superfamily.
Our prior work demonstrated that RIP140 is a direct target of retinoid signaling and that RIP140 can be limiting for both retinoid and estrogen signaling [21–23]. Silencing RIP140 in NT2/D1 cells resulted in RA-dependent increases in expression of model endogenous RA target genes RARβ and LEFTY2, and enhanced and accelerated RA-induced differentiation and growth suppression . This evidence suggests that RA induction of RIP140 constitutes a negative-feedback mechanism to fine-tune retinoid signaling.
Retinoids are pleiotropic agents regulating many gene targets. However, we have shown that RIP140 siRNA accelerates RA-dependent growth suppression and differentiation . The identification of genes normally limited by RIP140 during RA-induced growth and differentiation is of interest since these genes may be particularly important regulators of these processes. The possibility remains that unidentified subclasses of genes may be regulated by RIP140 in distinct manners .
The present study was conducted to characterize, on a genome-wide scale, the role of RIP140 in the regulation of RA signaling in a cancer stem cell model. Together the data demonstrates that RIP140 has profound effects on RA-mediated gene expression. Subclasses of genes were affected by RIP140 in distinct manners while other RA-dependent genes were unaffected suggesting that RIP140 may discriminate between different classes of RA targets. The RIP140-dependent RA target genes identified here may be particularly important in mediating RA-induced tumor cell differentiation.
Validation of RIP140 specific siRNA
We previously established that RIP140 is a target of RA signaling and that RIP140 in turn is a limiting factor for RA activity . Specifically, we showed that knockdown of RIP140 with a RIP140-specific siRNA (RIP140siRNA#1) increased endogenous expression of RA target genes RARβ and LEFTY2, and accelerated immunophenotypic differentiation as measure by A2B5 staining of NT2/D1 cells . A key feature was that knockdown of RIP140 did not affect these endpoints in cells depleted of endogenous retinoids, confirming that RIP140 mainly associates with ligand-bound nuclear receptors. These studies were performed with a constant 1 μM dose of RA and a relatively high, 150 nM dose of siRNA. Prior to global gene expression studies, we wished to further validate the siRNA approach for targeting RIP140.
An important control to ensure a given siRNA phenotype is not due to off-target effects is to rescue the siRNA phenotype with overexpression of its target. RIP140siRNA#1, as well as a newly designed siRNA targeting the 3' untranslated region of human RIP140 (siRNA#3) enhanced induction of a RAR-specific reporter construct in a RA-dependent manner (Figure 1C). Further, a RIP140 expression plasmid that does not contain the 3' untranslated region of RIP140 repressed RA signaling in scrambled control cells (Figure 1C). This RIP140 construct potently opposed the effect of RIP140siRNA#3 but not RIP140siRNA#1, which targets the coding region of RIP140. Thus, silencing of RIP140 by siRNA enhanced RA-mediated responses in NT2/D1 cells at low doses of siRNA and this could be rescued by exogenous RIP140. Further, the effects of RIP140 silencing were mainly ligand-dependent since performing these experiments under charcoal absorbed sera conditions resulted in minimal changes in basal RAR activity or in the differentiation of NT2/D1 cells (Figure 1).
The treatments were done in the presence of normal sera, since charcoal absorption of sera removes many small hydrophobic ligands to the nuclear receptor family in addition to retinoids. This measure was taken with the aim to perhaps identify target genes of other nuclear receptors including orphan receptors that could be regulated by RIP140 in the presence of low levels of their cognate ligands. RA treatment of 10 μM for 24 hours was chosen since previous experience with NT2/D1 cells indicated that a reasonably sized set of altered genes would be obtained [5, 24]. In addition, NT2/D1 cells commit to RA-induced differentiation by 48 hours and RIP140 repression accelerates RA-induced differentiation of EC cells [5, 22]. Therefore, the 24-hour time point is well-within the range of the RA commitment "window" and a larger percentage of direct RA-target genes could be expected to be uncovered compared to later time points.
Based on the current understanding of the properties of RIP140 [14–18], a number of potential outcomes were anticipated: 1) RIP140 may limit RA target gene activation by negative-feedback inhibition upon RA addition, 2) RIP140 may participate in "active repression" of gene expression upon RA addition, 3) an unexpected outcome that RIP140 may participate in the activation of a subset of target genes, 4) RIP140 may regulate the transcription of target genes of other nuclear receptors or even non-nuclear receptor transcription factors. The readout from the array design that would support each of these outcomes is depicted in Figure 2B. The extent of RIP140 knockdown and the level of enhancement of RARβ expression in the actual samples used in for array are depicted in Figure 2C.
Silencing of RIP140 quantitatively alters the RA transcriptional response in EC cells
Genes differentially expressed with RA in RIP140 siRNA treated NT2/D1 cells
RA fold-change in control siRNA cells
RA fold-change in RIP140 siRNA cells
Teashirt family zinc finger 1
Doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1
Chromosome 8 open reading frame 72
Zinc binding alcohol dehydrogenase, domain containing 2
Retinoic acid receptor, beta
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase family, member 2
DEP domain containing 6
Potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 4
Meis1, myeloid ecotropic viral integration site 1 homolog (mouse)
DKFZP686A01247 hypothetical protein
Phospholipase A2 homolog
Sushi domain containing 3
Endothelial differentiation, lysophosphatidic acid G-protein recept
Kinesin family member 21B
Inhibin, beta B (activin AB beta polypeptide)
Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DP beta 1
Elastin microfibril interfacer 2
Hyaluronan synthase 3
Nuclear receptor subfamily 6, group A, member 1
AT motif binding factor 1
Nodal homolog (mouse)
Zinc finger protein 703
Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, pappalysin 1
Kelch-like 7 (Drosophila)
Ligand of numb-protein × 1
Protein kinase C, eta
T-box 3 (ulnar mammary syndrome)
Potassium channel tetramerisation domain containing 12
Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, U
Wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 3
Endothelial PAS domain protein 1
WD repeat domain 68
Cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain)
Family with sequence similarity 46, member B
Forkhead box D3
PTPRF interacting protein, binding protein 2 (liprin beta 2)
Adenylate kinase 3-like 1
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5
The majority of RIP140-dependent genes change in a manner consistent with RIP140 limiting RA signaling. Hence, RIP140 siRNA results in enhancement or amplification of the RA signal. Genes induced by RA in control cells are induced to a greater extent by RA in RIP140 siRNA cells and genes repressed by RA in control cells are repressed to a greater extent in RIP140 siRNA cells. This trend holds true whether the effects of RIP140 on RA signaling are ranked by fold-change (Table 1, 47 out of 49 genes) or p-value (Table S6, 37 out of 40 genes). The exceptions are bolded in Tables 1 and Table S6 [see Additional file 2]. In addition only 1 gene in the ranked tables had an expression profile that could be consistent with "active repression" (second pattern in Figure 2B). This gene is boxed in Table S6. The effects of RIP140 had little bias for the extent of RA-induction. For example, a strongly induced gene, PYCR2, is induced by RA in control cells 32.6-fold and in RIP140 siRNA cells by 104.6-fold, while a weakly induce gene INHBB is induce 1.22-fold in control cells and 2.95-fold in RIP140 siRNA cells (Table 1). There are also examples of genes that are not altered with RA in control cells but altered by RA in RIP140 siRNA cells. One interpretation of this result is that the RA alteration of these genes may have been accelerated with RIP140 siRNA and that the 24-hour time point is too early to detect RA-mediated changes in the siRNA control cells.
Silencing of RIP140 does not greatly alter RA-independent gene expression
Genes changed basally with RIP140 siRNA
Fold change RIP140 siRNA/ctrl siRNA
Folate receptor 1 (adult)
RAB3B, member RAS oncogene family
SMAD family member 5
Metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma 1 (non-coding RNA)
Doublecortex; lissencephaly, X-linked (doublecortin)
Beta-1,3-glucuronyltransferase 3 (glucuronosyltransferase I)
Chromosome 14 open reading frame 111
SMAD family member 5
Cut-like 1, CCAAT displacement protein (Drosophila)
Chromosome 18 open reading frame 54
Polypyrimidine tract binding protein 2
Nuclear receptor interacting protein 1
Restin (Reed-Steinberg expressed intermediate filament-associated)
U2AF homology motif (UHM) kinase 1
Folliculin interacting protein 1
Poly(rC) binding protein 2
BAT2 domain containing 1
Family with sequence similarity 80, member B
U2AF homology motif (UHM) kinase 1
XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related family, member 6
BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zip transcription factor 1
Hypothetical protein LOC158863
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 (mitochondrial)
RB-associated KRAB zinc finger
Zinc finger RNA binding protein
Solute carrier family 39 (zinc transporter), member 14
U2AF homology motif (UHM) kinase 1
Heterogen nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (scaffold attach factor A)
Protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I, beta subunit
Zinc finger protein 660
Zinc finger protein 655
Cell division cycle 42 (GTP binding protein, 25 kDa)
Establishment of cohesion 1 homolog 1 (S. cerevisiae)
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2W (putative)
HECT domain containing 1
Ubiquitin-fold modifier 1
PI-3-kinase-related kinase SMG-1 – like locus
Glucosaminyl (N-acetyl) transferase 2, (I blood group)
Endothelial differentiation, lysophosphatidic acid G-coupled recept
RA target genes cluster into distinct groups based on RIP140-dependency
Mode of action of RIP140 in RA signaling
Through the use of microarray technology we sought to elucidate, in a de novo fashion, the global role of RIP140 in RA-dependent signaling. The predominant gene expression pattern is consistent with RIP140 limiting RA signaling . Since RIP140 depletion enhances RA-induced differentiation (Figure 1B, 8A) these genes may play an important role in mediating the growth suppression, differentiation and anti-tumorigenic effect of RA in embryonal carcinoma. These data support the notion that the primary effect of the ligand-dependent corepressor RIP140 is to limit the activity of retinoid receptors (Figure 8C). A feature of this model is that RIP140 is itself induced by RA  and that RIP140 inhibits ligand-bound RARs to form a classic negative-feedback loop. One interesting gene predicted to be repressed by RIP140 was the RIP140 cofactor, CTBP2 . This raises the potential of the additional complexity of RIP140 limiting its own activity by regulating CTBP2. Confirming and establishing the importance of RIP140 transcriptional regulation of CTBP2 will require further rigorous studies.
It is tempting to speculate on the importance of RIP140 restriction of RA-target gene expression. One possibility is that RIP140 ensures that cells are exposed to a threshold concentration of RA for a required duration before committing to differentiation. This could be important for developmental timing but an impediment to retinoid therapies in the adult [1, 25]. Alternatively, RIP40 may fine-tune the RA signal to ensure that a critical set of target genes are not overly or toxically expressed.
Our studies suggest that regulation of RAR signaling by RIP140 is more complex than a simple all-or-none effect on global RAR activation. We have identified gene subsets regulated by RA in apparent RIP140-dependent and RIP140-independent manners. It is possible that RIP140 may have a selective ability to affect the actions of different subtypes of retinoid receptors. Alternatively, this differential effect of RIP140 may involve differences in the local chromatin environment of specific genes. First-pass analysis of the predicted promoter regions of RIP140-dependent target genes was unable to identify any cis-acting features that may account for differential sensitivity to RIP140. We believe the RIP140-sensitive RA target genes identified here may have pharmacologic importance during normal retinoid-based cancer therapy or prevention [1, 25]. It would also be interesting to know the number of RIP140 sensitive genes that are direct RA-target genes.
Within the limits of the single RA dose and time-point employed, RIP140-dependent genes can be placed in three categories based on their expression profiles (Figure 5, 6 and 7). Some genes appeared super-induced or super-repressed with RIP140 repression, meaning they were changed with RA to a greater degree in RIP140 siRNA cells compared to control siRNA cells. Some genes were induced with RA in RIP140 siRNA cells but unchanged by RA in control siRNA cells. It may be predicted that this subset of genes is regulated by RA in the control siRNA cells at later time points. Some RA regulated genes in control cells were regulated basally in the siRNA RIP140 cells. We propose that these genes are expressed in RIP140 siRNA cells due to the presence of previously sub-optimal concentrations of retinoids in standard non-charcoal stripped FBS media. Hence, from the data presented here we propose the RIP140 plays a role in finetuning the RA signal by either delaying the timing, decreasing the amplitude or decreasing the effective ligand concentration of RAR activation (Figure 8C).
Recent microarray studies suggest extensive and early ligand-dependent repression of gene expression by nuclear receptors [12, 13]. However, the mechanism for such repression is unclear. Ligand-dependent repressors like RIP140 are candidate mediators of such repression. This is particularly relevant for the steroid nuclear receptors such as the estrogen, progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors. If RIP140 participates in this form of RAR "active repression" one would expect that genes repressed by RA would be de-repressed upon RIP140 silencing. Our data does not support a widespread role for RIP140 in retinoid receptor-mediated active repression. This conclusion is consistent with the finding that RIP140 also inhibits glucocorticoid receptor-mediated repression from a negative GRE . As with other nuclear receptor and coregulator functions, active repression by RIP140 may be cell-, receptor- and context-specific.
While it is known that RIP140 modulates transcription through repressing ligand-dependent nuclear receptors, the possibility exists that RIP140 may function through multiple mechanisms, including nuclear receptor-independent mechanisms. For example, a recent microarray study reported a role for the coactivator, NCoA3/AIB1, in receptor-independent activities, illustrating the diverse functionality of coregulators and highlighting the need for further elucidation of their role in gene transcription . The microarray studies presented here were optimized to investigate gene changes following RA treatment, making it difficult to draw conclusions regarding the effects of RIP140 on other nuclear receptors. Despite the inclusion of normal sera media which may contain limiting quantities of ligand for other nuclear receptors, we were unable to identify many RA-independent targets of RIP140. To address this question, additional RIP140 siRNA array studies should be performed with exogenous ligands for other nuclear receptors.
A limited number of studies have been performed to assess the global effect of RIP140 on gene expression. Expression profiles were performed with murine embryonic fibroblasts in which RIP140 was deleted and reintroduced during adipocytic differentiation . Another study employed 3T3-L1 fibroblasts treated with RIP140 siRNA during adipocytic differentiation . Genes identified to be regulated by RIP140 in these systems were involved in glucose and fatty acid metabolism [28, 29]. An additional study profiled mouse ovaries from RIP140 knockout mice treated with or without human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnant mare serum gonadotropin . There is little overlap in the RIP140-dependent genes identified in these and our study. This is not surprising since RIP140 likely regulates different sets of genes in different tissues based on the ligand/receptor under investigation and the distinct hormone sensitivities of the tissue.
The data demonstrates that RIP140 globally effects RA-mediated gene expression and that RIP140 discriminates between different classes of RA targets in the embryonal carcinoma cancer stem cell model. Maintaining therapeutic doses of RA has proven difficult in the clinic [1, 25]. Understanding the mechanisms that limit RA effectiveness may aid in developing new RA therapeutic strategies. We propose that the combination of RIP140 gene silencing with RA treatment might enhance expression of important RA target genes, thereby enhancing the therapeutic benefit of RA. Future studies should focus on pharmacologic modulation of RIP140 expression or activity as a potential strategy to enhance the chemotherapeutic action of retinoids.
Cell culture, siRNA and transfection protocols
The RA-sensitive human EC cell line, NT2/D1 is a clonal line derived from a xenograft of Tera-2 cells . Cells were cultured in high glucose DMEM (Gibco) with 10% FBS supplemented with glutamine and antibiotics. Repression of RIP140 was achieved using three siRNAs purchased from Dharmacon. RIP140siRNA#1 and RIP140siRNA#2 have been previously described [22, 23]. RIP140siRNA#1 is of sequence 5'-GAAGGAAGCUUUGCUAGCU-3' and corresponds to the human RIP140 cDNA starting 331 bp downstream of the ATG start codon. RIP140siRNA#2 is of sequence 5'-CAAACAGGAUAGCACAUUA-3' and corresponds to human RIP140 cDNA starting 1986 bp downstream of the ATG start codon. RIP140siRNA#3 is of sequence 5'-AACUGUGAGUAGCCUAUGA-3' and corresponds to the 3'-UTR of RIP140 242 bp downstream of the stop codon. Controls were the Scramble II siRNA or RISC-free siRNA from Dharmacon. For microarray experiments, log-phase cells were transfected with 90 nM siRNA using OligofectAMINE (Invitrogen) as described [22, 23]. Briefly, 3.5 × 106 cells per 10 cm plate were transfected with 90 nM siRNA for 16 h. 1 × 106 cells were then replated in normal sera DMEM media per 10 cm dish and 24 hours later treated with either 10 μM RA or DMSO for 24 hours before harvesting for mRNA. For some indicated experiments, NT2/D1 cells were first incubated in charcoal-absorbed sera containing DMEM prior to transfection with siRNA and treatment with indicated dosages of RA.
The reporter, RARE-TK-Luc, and the expression plasmid pSG5-HAhRIP140 have been previously described [21–23]. Cells were plated at 1.5 × 105 cells per well of a six-well plate and transfected with Polyfect (Qiagen) according to the manufacturer's directions. Tranfections were performed in triplicate for each condition with a final concentration of 0.375 μg RARE-TK-Luc, 0.375 μg pRL-TK, 0.75 μg of either pSG5-insertless or pSG5HA-hRIP140, and 50 nM of control or RIP140 siRNA. Cells were exposed to transfection reagent for 16 hours and then washed and cultured in indicated dosages of RA or the vehicle, DMSO. Cells were harvested 48 hours following transfection and Dual Luciferase Reporter analysis was performed (Promega). Luciferase activity was normalized against renilla activity and reported as the average of triplicate transfections with similar results obtained in at least two independent experiments.
Northern and RT-PCR analysis
Total RNA was harvested using TriReagent (Invitrogen). Northern hybridizations for RARβ and RIP140 were performed with 5 μg RNA as previously described . Expression levels of RA-target genes were assessed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The cDNA was synthesized using Superscript II RT from 5 μg total RNA. PCR analysis was performed with Taq polymerase (Denville) to varying cycle numbers within the linear range as previously described . The sequence of primers are available upon request.
Indirect fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis to evaluate RA-induced neuronal differentiation of NT2/D1 cells was performed using established techniques . Briefly, NT2/D1 cells were harvested by trypsinization and incubated with antibody to the cell surface antigen A2B5 or with isotype-matched monoclonal antibody as controls. The A2B5 antibody recognizes a neuronal epitope on RA-treated NT2/D1 cells and was prepared from hybridoma cultures purchased from ATCC. The cells were indirectly assayed with FITC-conjugated goat-anti-mouse antibody, and fluorescence was measured as described . Mean peak fluorescent values and the percentage of positive cells were measured for the entire population. At least 1 × 104 cells were analyzed per assay.
Total RNA was purified using RNeasy columns (Qiagen). Hybridizations were performed according to Affymetrix guidelines at the Dartmouth College Microarray Shared Resource using an Affymetrix GeneChip Workstation. Biotin-labeled cRNA was generated from 5 μg of total RNA and hybridized to the Human Genome (HG) U133 Plus 2.0 chip which contains over 54,000 probe sets. Unless specifically stated we will refer to each probe set as a "gene". As described in Figure 2A, a total of 12 hybridizations were performed comprising 12-independent biologic samples organized into four groups of three. This data is available at the GEO website under Accession GSE7500 and conforms to MIAME guidelines. Raw data from each hybridization was normalized by RMA, background corrected and filtered for present using GeneSifter software (vizX Labs). As a further filter, any gene that showed a 1.5-fold or greater difference amongst the three samples comprising Group 1 (the siRNA controls) were eliminated from further analysis. The remaining 52,270 probe sets were then analyzed by GeneSifter software. Pairwise comparisons between groups were performed using t-test with p-value and cutoffs as indicated. For hierarchical cluster analysis genes changed 1.8 fold or greater between any of the four groups with p-value < .01 (1115 genes) were clustered via the Cluster program by Michael Eisen using a correlation metric for similarity matrix and average linkage clustering . The clustered data was visualized by Tree-View software. Genes were also divided into clusters using partitioning around medoids (PAM) analysis from the GeneSifter package. Genes changed 1.5-fold or greater with a p-value of < .001 (1065 genes) were used for this analysis using the correlation metric for similarity. The number of clusters (six) was chosen empirically to obtain the best mean silhouette value of 0.560.
nuclear receptor interacting protein 1
retinoic acid receptor
retinoid X receptor
nuclear receptor co-repressor 1
silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptor
c-terminal binding protein.
This work was supported by the National Institute of Health Grant R01-CA104312 (MJS) and a grant from the Lance Armstrong Foundation (MJS), and a pre-Doctoral Fellowship BC010159 from the Department of Defense (KAW).
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