Effects of transient silence and forced overexpression of CypA on cell proliferation of CCA cell lines and a non-tumor cholangiocyte cell line. (A) CypA mRNA levels after transient silence of CypA in M139, M213, M214 CCA cell lines and MMNK1. (B) Transient silence of CypA reduces cell proliferation of CCA cells, but not MMNK1 cells in vitro. (C) CypA mRNA levels after transient overexpression of CypA for 48 hours. (D) Transient overexpression of CypA in CCA cell lines showed higher rate of cell proliferation compared to the control whereas MMNK1 cell proliferation was not affected by CypA overexpressed. Cell proliferation rate is shown as the fold increase compared to initial seeding. Data represent means ± SD of three independent experiments. ** denotes P < 0.05 versus the control.