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Table 1 Comprehensive list of SCLC-associated autoantigens and autoantibodies

From: Small-cell lung cancer-associated autoantibodies: potential applications to cancer diagnosis, early detection, and therapy

Autoantigen Antibody Paraneoplastic Symptoms % of antibody- positive PNS patients who have SCLC % SCLC patients without PNS who have antibodies Reference
  "Well characterized" onconeural autoantibodies [56]  
Amphiphysin Anti-amphiphysin PEM/SN, SMS 2.9 1.4 [27, 29]
Collapsin response- mediator protein (CRMP5/POP66) Anti-CRMP/Anti-CV2 PEM/SN 77 9 [29, 142, 183185]
HuB(Hel-N1)/ELAVL2, HuC/ELAVL3, HuD/ELAVL4 Anti-Hu PEM/SN 85 16-25 [36, 42, 88, 173, 186]
Neuro-oncological ventral antigen (Nova) Anti-Ri (ANNA2)/anti-Nova PNS; POMA 0 4.5 [29, 105, 187, 188]
Paraneoplastic Ma proteins (PNMA1) Anti-Ma PEM/SN ND ND [189, 190]
PNMA2 Anti-Ta PEM/SN ND ND [190]
Surface-binding autoantibodies
P/Q type voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC), MysB Anti-VGCC LEMS; PCD 40-98 2-5 [50, 66, 73, 74, 76, 163, 164, 191, 192]
Voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) Anti-VGKC LEMS ND ND [166, 193]
α-amino-3- hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) Anti-AMPAR; Anti-GluR1/2 LEMS ND ND [194]
Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type N (PTPRN) Anti-IA-2 LEMS 25 10 [195]
GABAB receptor Anti-GABAB LEMS 33 ND [196]
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) Anti-AChR (α3) Autonomic neuropathy 3-5 ND [197]
Other autoantibodies described in literature and/or case reports
280-kDa cerebellar protein Anti-Purkinje cell cytoplasmic antibody (PCA)-2 LEMS 53 2 [29, 198]
170-kDa brain protein Anti-neuronal nuclear autoantibody type 3 (ANNA-3) LEMS 45 ND [199]
BR serine/threonine kinase (BRSK)2 Anti-BRSK2 PNS ND 4 [200]
α-Enolase Anti-enolase CAR ND 0 [201, 202]
Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 2 Anti-GAD65 (GAD65A) LEMS 63 9-19 [195, 203]
Recoverin Antiretinal, Anti-Rc CAR 45 10-15 [83, 84, 87, 201, 204]
Sry-like high mobility group box (SOX)1,2 Anti-SOX LEMS 64 22-36 [30, 31, 78, 80, 205]
Synaptotagmin (SYT)1 Anti-SYT LEMS 5 ND [206]
Synaptophysin Anti-synaptophysin PNS ND 5 [104]
ZIC2 ZIC4 (derived from zinc fingers of cerebellum) Anti-ZIC PND 29 16 [80, 207, 208]
  1. Paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis sensory neuronopathy (PEM/SN); Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS); Cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR); paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus ataxia (POMA); paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD); paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS); Paraneoplastic neurologic disorder (PND); Paraneoplastic stiff man syndrome (SMS); Not determined (ND).