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Table 1 Comparative analysis of in vitr o studies performed for assessing anti-cancer properties of purified berberine (>99%) in various human cancer and normal cells

From: Berberine modulates AP-1 activity to suppress HPV transcription and downstream signaling to induce growth arrest and apoptosis in cervical cancer cells

Cells Type (Human) Cell Line Concentration Range Tested Percent Cell Death at max. Dose after 24 h (Approx; %) IC50(μg/ml) after 24 h References
   μM μg/ml    
Tongue squamous carcinoma SCC-4 15 - 100 5.58 - 37 45 28 (48 h) [55]
Prostrate carcinoma LNCaP 10 - 100 3.7 - 37 35 >37 [19]
   5 - 100 1.8 - 37 65 22.3 [56]
  DU145 10 - 100 3.7 - 37 40 >37 [19]
  PC-3 10- 100 3.7 - 37 70 18.6 [19]
   5 - 100 1.8 - 37 50 37 [56]
Oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-3 5 - 75 1.8 - 28 82 6.7 [57]
Non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 25 - 100 9.3 - 37 55 28 [21]
  H1299 25 - 100 9.3 - 37 50 (48 h) 37 (48 h) [21]
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma 5-8F 2.5 - 100 0.93 - 37 50 37 [58]
Leukemia HL-60 5 - 60 1.8 -22 70 <11 [59]
Hepatoma KIM-1 0.01 - 100 0.0037 - 37 35 14.88 [35]
  Hep3B 0.32- 320 0.119 - 119 8.5 Not defined [60]
  HA22T/VGH 0.32 - 320 0.119 - 119 1 Not defined [60]
  HepG2 28 - 107 10 - 40 95 13 (48 h) [61]
   1 - 10 0.37 - 3.7 70 0.52 [62]
   0.32 - 320 0.119 - 119 6 ND [60]
Glioma U87 1 -20 1 - 7.4 40 >7.4 [63]
  T98G 134 - 538 50 - 200 60 134 [17]
Gastric carcinoma SNU-5 50 - 200 18.6 - 74 95 17.85 [20]
Embryonic kidney HEK-293T 1 - 10 0.37 - 3.7 35 5 [62]
Epidermoid carcinoma A431 5 - 75 1.8 - 28 45 >28 [14]
Breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 1 - 10 1 - 3.7 0 Not defined [24]
Cervical carcinoma C33a (HPV-) 2.7 - 672 1 - 250 24 >250 Current study
  CaSki (HPV16+) 50 - 150 18.6 - 55.8 80 42 [26]
  SiHa (HPV16+) 2.7 - 672 1 - 250 87 90 Current study
  HeLa (HPV18+) 0.27 - 403 0.1 - 150 ND 6 [49]
   0.1 - 10 0.037 - 3.7 No effect Not defined [64]
   33.5 - 269 12.5 - 100 50 100 [50]
   1 - 10 0.37 - 3.7 48 4 [62]
   2.7 - 672 1 - 250 90 75 Current study
Normal Cells Bronchial epithelium 25 - 100 9.3 - 37 5 No effect [21]
  Lymphocytes 2.7 - 672 1 - 250 4 No effect Current study
  Prostrate epithelium (PWR-1E) 5 - 100 1.8 - 37 40 Not defined [56]
   10 - 100 3.7 - 37 5 No effect [19]
  Epidermal keratinocytes 5 - 75 1.8 - 28 11 (48 h) No effect [14]