A model of how TILs in the TME are rescued to exert their effector functions by TLR ligands-reactivated DCs in the TME. TILs activated by oncolytic virotherapy or other cancer vaccines migrated from lymph nodes to the tumor tissues may require in situ activation by tumor–infiltrated DCs. However, the tumor-infiltrated DCs (TIDCs) are immunologically suppressed in the TME, but can be activated by TLR ligands or/and other TLR3/9 ligands (TLR ligands) through type I IFN-dependent signaling. Some OVs themselves or their products (such as dsRNA) can function as TLR ligands. The functionally reactivated TIDCs can acquire, process, and present TAAs to reactivate TILs to exert their functions. This model is modified from Xiao H et al., 2013.