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Table 2 OVs induce ICD and/or promote antitumor immunity in animal models or human patients (*)

From: Oncolytic viruses as therapeutic cancer vaccines

Virus Modifications ICD and DAMPs (in vitro) Antitumor Immunity (in vivo) Reference
hTERT-Ad E1a gene driven by hTERT promoter Immunogenic apoptosis hTERT-Ad and bortezmib (proteasome inhibition) leads to potent antitumor immunity [65]
Ad5/3-D24-GMCSF Ad3 fiber E1a-deleted (RB-selective) GM-CSF + Enhanced autophagy; ecto- CRT; released ATP and HMGB1 Tumor-specific T cell responses and antitumor efficacy in some patients [clinical trial] [62]
G207 R34.5-; ICP6- NA Systemic antitumor immunity (CD8+ T cells) [66]
HSV-1716 ICP 34.5 gene mutant Induction of IFN-γ, CXCL9 and CXCL10 Intratumoral injection increased NK and CD8+ T cells [67]
T-VEC ICP47-γ34.5 - GM-CSF + Necrosis/apoptosis (in vivo) Antigen-specific T cell responses and decreases in Treg, Ts, and MDSC in human melanoma patients [clinical trials] [68, 69]
HSV-2 ΔPK mutant ICP10 PK domain deleted Apoptosis/Pyroptosis Dominant induction of CD4+ Th1 cells [70]
vSP Spi-1/spi-2- Necrosis/apoptosis HMGB1 release NA [58]
vvDD tk-/vgf- Necrosis/HMGB1 and ATP release CD11b + cells and CD11b+Ly6G+ cells (DCs and Neutrophils) [71]
Pexa-Vec tk-GM-CSF+ NA Antiviral CTL and antibodies against TAAs in Human HCC patients [clinical trial] [72]
VSV-GFP (Indiana serotype) Marker gene GFP Induction of IL-28 by virally activated innate immune cells in the TME IL-28 sensitize cancer cells to NK cell recognition and killing [73]
VSVgm-icv oncolytic vaccine plateform Deletion in The M protein at position 51; VSV-GM-CSF+ NA The antitumor immunity is robust enough to control established tumor. Tumor is infiltrated by a large number of IFNγ-producing T and NK cells [74]
MV-eGFP (Edmonston strain) Marker gene EGFP Released inflammatory cytokines and chemokines; IL-6 and HMGB1 Enhance innate antitumor and melanoma-specific adaptive immunity (in vitro) [55]
MV vaccine-infected tumor cells Marker gene EGFP ICD; apoptotic cells phagocytosed by DCs Allowing DC to mature, produce high level of IFN-α, and cross-present TAAs and production of tumor-specific CD8 T cells [75, 76]
  1. *Notes:
  2. (1). data for T-VEC and Pexa-Vec are from human patients;
  3. (2). NA, not assessed.