JY-1-106 inhibits tumor growth in lung cancer xenograft model. (A) Representative sections of organs and tumors collected from mice injected daily for two days with JY-1-106 i.p. at 25 mg/kg in 500 μl of PBS or with a DMSO control. Tissues were preserved in formalin and mounted in paraffin bocks. Tumor tissues were prepared using standard histology and TUNEL stained. TUNEL positive cells with brown color were indicated with arrowhead. JY-1-106 treated tumors showed elevated numbers of apoptotic cells which were detectable by an increased brown color. (B) Collected mouse tissues were preserved in formalin and mounted in paraffin bocks. Slides were prepared using standard histology and stained with H&E. (C) Suppression of tumor growth in tumor-bearing nude mice by JY-1-106. Nude mice were implanted with tumor cells using s.c. injection in the right flanks. When the tumors reached 5 mm in diameter (2 weeks after injection), JY-1-106 was administered at 25 mg/kg in 500 μl of PBS for each i.p. injection. DMSO alone was used as a mock treatment control. The injections were performed every other day for seven sequential treatments. Tumor volumes were calculated from every-other daily measurements of tumor diameters in all experimental and control groups. Results were reported as mean tumor volume ± SE over time (n = 6 mice for each treatment and control group). The difference between the tumor volumes of the JY-1-106 treated mice versus tumor volumes of the solvent control treated mice was significant (ANOVA test, p < 0.05). All of these experiments were repeated twice.