Upregulation of YY1 results in significant increased in mRNA and protein expression of αSMA in tumor kidney tissues of TSC patients. Representative RTPCR of mRNA (A) and immunoblot protein expression (B) of αSMA in normal kidney and tumor kidney tissues from patients with tuberous sclerosis. Actin was used as loading control. (C’ &D) Histograms represent means ± SE (n = 6). Significant difference from control is indicated by **P < 0.01. (E) H&E staining shows (a) a normal tubular and glomerular structure in control kidney tissue and (b) *fat, ^vessel and # smooth muscle cells types in kidney angiomyolipoma tissue of TSC patients. (F) Kidney sections were stained with αSMA followed by horseradish peroxidase staining. (c) Control of kidney shows a few cells stained with αSMA while (d) most of blood vessel and smooth muscle cells were stained in kidney tumor tissue. Control sections in both procedures were incubated without primary antibody.