Garcinol reduces cellular proliferation and induces apoptosis in HCC cells. (A) Garcinol inhibits proliferation of HCC cells in a dose and time dependent manner. Different cell lines were plated in triplicate, treated with indicated concentrations of garcinol, and then subjected to MTT assay after 24, 48 and 72 h to analyze proliferation of cells. Data represents result of three independent experiments. (B) Garcinol promotes apoptosis: C3A cells were treated with 50 μM garcinol and the whole cell extracts were subjected to immune-blotting with antibodies against pro-caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3 and PARP taking β-actin as loading control. (C) Garcinol potentiates the apoptotic effect of doxorubicin and paclitaxel. C3A cells (1×106/ml) were treated with 10 μM garcinol and 10 nM doxorubicin or 5 nM paclitaxel alone or in combination for 24 h at 37°C. Cells were stained with a Live/Dead assay reagent for 30 min and then analyzed under a fluorescence microscope as described in Materials and Methods.