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Table 1 Changes in tumor microvasculature during multistep carcinogenesis

From: Vasohibin-2 modulates tumor onset in the gastrointestinal tract by normalizing tumor angiogenesis

   Apc mice   
Adenoma-carcinoma sequence: Normal tissue Adenoma Adenoma Adeno Ca
(early) (late)
Morphological abnormality;     
Vessel density - 1+ 2+ 3+
Lumen Round Not round Not round Not round
  Systematic Tortuous Tortuous Tortuous
Branching - 1+ 2+ 3+
Irregularity - 2+ 3+ 3+
Ec     
Morphology Normal Protuberance Protuberance Protuberance
   Microvilli Microvilli Microvilli
IHC Lectin + + + +
CD31 + + + +
CD105 - ± + +
BM     
Morphology Single Multiple Multiple Multiple
Pc     
Morphology Attached Detached Detached Detached
   Protuberance Protuberance Protuberance
IHC Desmin + + + +
α-SMA - - ± +
Pv     
IHC VASH2 - - + +
Functional abnormality;     
Permeability - - + ++
Blood flow (lectin) Normal Irregularity 1+ Irregularity 2+ Irregularity 2+
Hypoxia (HIF1-α) - - ± +
Gene mutation Apc Apc K-ras p53 and more
Stage of microvasculature Stage 0 Stage I Stage IIa Stage IIb
  1. Apc: ApcMin/+, Ec: Endothelial cell, BM: Basement membrane, Pc: Pericyte, Pv: Peripheral tumor vessel, IHC: Immunohistochemistry. Samples were scored as negative (-), mild (1+), Moderate (2+), Severe (3+). Positive staining was recorded as absent (-), weak (±), positive (+), strong (++).