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Table 1 Frequency of major genetic alterations in pancreatic carcinoma.

From: Genetic alterations in pancreatic carcinoma

Gene Reference Normal PanIN1A PanIN1B PanIN2 PanIN3 Carcinoma
K-RAS [6] 0% 38% 44%   87%  
  [36] 3% 30% 31% 73%   
        ~90%
INK4a [19] 0% 30% 27% 55% 71% 100%
  [14]   33%     40%
TP53 [37] 0%     12% 40%
  [35] 0%   35%   36% 40%
  [36] 0% 0% 0% 9,1%   87%
  [9] 0% 0% 0% 20% 57% 47%
DPC4/Smad4 [47]   0% 0% 0% 31% 55%
  [9] 0% 0% 0% 0% 33% 66%