Composite of zinc and citrate levels in prostate. The zinc data are taken from Zaichick et al  and show the range of zinc levels in resected prostate tissue samples from different subjects. The citrate data are taken from Kurhanewicz et al  and show the range of citrate levels as determined by in situ magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging of the prostate gland of different subjects. The actual zinc and citrate concentrations for normal were set to 100 and the values for BPH and PCa were adjusted accordingly. Note the parallelisms in that zinc and citrate levels are consistently significantly low in malignancy; and that no case exists in which the malignant loci retain the high zinc or high citrate levels that characterize normal or hypertrophic glands. The values above each bar are the number of subjects.