Skip to main content

Table 2 Genes identified by Prediction Analysis of Microarrays (PAM) differentially expressed in normal skin compared to non-melanoma skin cancer.

From: Identification of differentially expressed genes in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma by microarray expression profiling

A) Up-regulated genes (42) in non-melanoma skin cancer. Microarray experiments ANOVA
  No. Accession No. Symbol Gene Function Localization Change fold T/N Mean of raw signal (normal) Mean of raw signal (AK&SCC) p-value
Differentiation           
  1 AF183421.1 rab22b Small GTP-bindung protein rab22 (RAB31) Small GTPase signal transduction. 18p11.3 1.87 6853 12495 n.s.
  2 NM_006868.1 RAB31* RAB31, member RAS oncogene family Small GTPase signal transduction. 18p11.3 3.30 2637 8437 0.027
Apoptosis           
  3 NM_004834.1 MAP4K4* Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 A member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family, specifically activate MAPK8/JNK. 2q11.2-q12 2.65 1475 3898 0.024
Proliferation           
  4 NM_007375.1 TARDBP TAR DNA binding protein Transcriptional repressor that binds to chromosomally integrated TAR DNA and represses HIV-1 transcription. 1p36.22 1.48 6779 10441 n.s.
Metabolism           
  5 D55674.1 hnRNP D Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D Associated with pre-mRNAs in the nucleus and appear to influence pre-mRNA processing and other aspects of mRNA metabolism and transport. 4q21.1-q21.2 1.64 4020 6968 n.s.
  6 NM_003942.1 RPS6KA4 Ribosomal protein S6 kinase RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase) family of serine/threonine kinases 11q11-q13 1.74 3374 6029 0.044
  7 NM_001814.1 CTSC Cathepsin C (CTSC) Defects in the encoded protein have been shown to be a cause of Papillon-Lefevre syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by palmoplantar keratosis and periodontitis. 11q14.1-q14.3 1.64 11435 18686 n.s.
  8 Z14077.1 YY1 YY1, NF-E1 protein Transcription factor involved in repressing and activating a diverse number of promoters. 14q 2.08 4185 8939 n.s.
  9 NM_006141.1 DNCLI2 Dynein, cytoplasmic, light intermediate polypeptide 2 Involved in retrograde organelle transport and some aspects of mitosis. 16q22.1 3.23 2225 5692 n.s.
  10 AF061832.1 M4 M4 protein deletion mutant Appear to influence pre-mRNA processing and other aspects of mRNA metabolism and transport. 19p13.3-p13.2 1.29 11154 14824 n.s.
Cell communication           
  11 U65590 IL-1RN* IL-1 receptor antagonist IL-1Ra Inhibits the activities of interleukin 1, alpha (IL1A) and interleukin 1, beta (IL1B), and modulates a variety of interleukin 1 related immune and inflammatory responses. 2q14.2 1.75 9599 18079 n.s.
  12 NM_004688.1 NMI* N-myc (and STAT) interactor Interacts with NMYC, CMYC, all STATs except STAT2. 2p24.3-q21.3 2.33 2744 6248 n.s.
  13 NM_002416.1 MIG Monokine induced by gamma interferon Binding to CXCR3 causes pleiotropic effects, including stimulation of monocytes, natural killer and T-cell migration, and modulation of adhesion molecule expression. 4q21 3.54 1492 10529 n.s.
  14 U72069.1 TNPO1 Karyopherin beta2 Interacts with nuclear localization signals to target nuclear proteins to the nucleus. 5q13.2 2.06 2986 6049 n.s.
  15 BC004489.1 HLA-C Major histocompatibility complex, class I, C A central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from ER lumen. 6p21.3 1.30 78196 106054 n.s.
  16 L42024.1 HLA-B39 MHC, HLA-B39 A central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from ER lumen. 6p21.3 1.35 78040 114101 n.s.
  17 NM_005516.1 HLA-E Major histocompatibility complex, class I, E A central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from ER lumen. 6p21.3 1.76 24252 43847 n.s.
  18 NM_006096.1 NDRG1 N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 Involved in stress responses, hormone responses, cell growth, and differentiation. 8q24.3 2.60 17233 44914 0.024
  19 AF313468.1 lectin-1 Dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin-1 Diverse functions, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell signalling, glycoprotein turnover, and roles in inflammation and immune response. 12p12.3-p13.2 3.61 1163 4146 0.019
  20 U88964 HEM45 HEM45 HIV-1 Tat upregulates the interferon-responsive gene expression of HEM45. 15q26 3.24 982 3293 0.019
  21 NM_000418.1 IL4R* Interleukin 4 receptor Development of allergic reactions and have been shown to modulate the function of monocytes and macrophages. 16p11.2-12.1 2.41 2519 6159 0.014
  22 NM_015986.1 CREME9 Cytokine receptor-like molecule 9 Thought to be involved in signal transduction. 17q11.2 1.58 4335 6950 0.015
  23 NM_002087.1 GRN* Granulin A role in the development of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. 17q21.32 1.77 14453 25978 0.034
Adhesion           
  24 AK023406.1 FLJ13344 FLJ13344 fis High homology to the actin and microtubules binding protein ABP620. 1p32-p31 2.49 3656 9107 0.038
  25 U03271 CAPZB F-actin capping protein beta subunit Regulates growth of the actin filament by capping the barbed end of growing actin filaments. 1p36.1 1.35 11809 16060 n.s.
  26 NM_005572.1 LMNA Lamin AC Lamin proteins are thought to be involved in nuclear stability, chromatin structure and gene expression. 1q21.2-q21.3 1.47 13531 19844 n.s.
  27 AB010427.2 WDR1 NORI-1 May help induce the disassembly of actin filaments. 4p16.1 2.11 7418 15927 <0.001
  28 NM_004893.1 H2AFY H2A histone family, member Y A member of the histone H2A family. 5q31.3-q32 1.39 18975 26758 0.048
  29 NM_001101.2 ACTB Actin, beta Conserved proteins that are involved in cell motility, structure and integrity. 7p15-p12 1.44 120864 178342 0.026
  30 NM_000700.1 ANXA1 Annexin A1 Located on the cytosolic face of the plasma membrane. 9q12-q21.2 1.74 35910 64023 0.043
  31 NM_002160.1 TNC* Hexabrachion (tenascin C, cytotactin) (HXB), Spliced tenascin-C has important roles in tumor progression of breast cancer. 9q33 4.60 1819 8694 0.038
  32 BF338947 1–8U Interferon induced transmembrane protein 3 Transmembrane protein. 11p15.5 1.70 20588 33223 n.s.
  33 NM_002421.2 MMP1* Matrix metalloproteinase 1 Involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes (embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling), in disease processes (arthritis, metastasis). 11q22.3 > 10 293 18006 0.024
  34 J00269.1 KRT6A Human 56 k cytoskeletal type II keratin Member of the keratin gene family. 12q12-q13 3.79 42604 161154 0.026
  35 NM_006825.1 CKAP4 Transmembrane protein Required for cell adhesion. 12q24.11 1.68 12780 22154 0.023
  36 NM_005561.2 LAMP1 Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 Possible a role in tumor cell metastasis. 13q34 1.28 25495 33858 n.s.
  37 NM_001793.1 CDH3 Cadherin 3, type 1, P-cadherin (placental) Calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein, mutations in this gene have been associated with congential hypotrichosis with juvenile macular dystrophy. 16q22.1 3.63 3819 15934 0.043
  38 NM_004360.1 CDH1* Cadherin 1, type 1, E-cadherin (epithelial) Calcium dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein, mutations in this gene are correlated with gastric, breast, colorectal, thyroid and ovarian cancer. 16q22.1 1.31 18773 24888 n.s.
  39 BC001920.1 actin gamma Actin, gamma 1 Involved in various types of cell motility, and maintenance of the cytoskeleton. 17q25 1.38 108509 152446 n.s.
  40 NM_001614.2 ACTG1 Actin, gamma 1 Involved in various types of cell motility, and maintenance of the cytoskeleton. 17q25 1.43 113681 166361 n.s.
  41 NM_004368.1 CNN2 Calponin 2 Participates in smooth muscle contractio, cell adhesion and can bind actin. 21q11.1 1.43 4012 5822 n.s.
  42 NM_004994.1 MMP9 Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (gelatinase B, collagenase) Involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes (embryonic development, reproduction, tissue remodeling), in disease processes (arthritis and metastasis). 20q11.2-q13.1 4.70 3150 16961 n.s.
B) Down-regulated genes (76) in non-melanoma skin cancer. Microarray experiments ANOVA
  No. Accession No. Symbol Gene Function Localization Change fold N/T Mean of raw signal (normal) Mean of raw signal (AK&SCC) p-value
Differentiation           
  1 NM_004430.1 EGR3 Early growth response 3 Participates in the transcriptional regulation of genes in controling biological rhythm. 8p23-p21 2.22 7833 3782 n.s.
  2 NM_022969.1 FGFR2 Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 Influences mitogenesis and differentiation. 10q26 2.04 9967 5011 n.s.
  3 BC001971.1 p27, Kip1 Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B Binds to and prevents the activation of cyclin E-CDK2 or cyclin D-CDK4 complexes, and thus controls the cell cycle progression at G1. 12p13.1-p12 1.45 8234 5959 n.s.
  4 AF309553.1 REC14 Meiotic recombination protein REC14 Exact function unknown. Thought to be involved in differentiation. 15q24.1 1.96 16148 8395 0.027
  5 NM_001424.1 EMP2 Epithelial membrane protein 2 A role in the control of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell death. 16p13.2 2.00 21074 11007 0.026
  6 NM_001983.1 ERCC1* Excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency Repair protein expression is reduced in testis neoplasms. 19q13.2-q13.3 1.79 7222 4073 n.s.
Apoptosis           
  7 NM_016085.1 APR-3 n.s. Apoptosis related protein APR-3 Involved in apoptosis, and may also be involved in hematopoietic development and differentiation. 2p23.3 1.85 21640 11863 0.012
  8 AB055804.1 MM-1 beta MM-1 beta Assists in the correct folding of other proteins, subunit is thought to repress the transcriptional activity of c-myc. 12q12 1.64 35682 22035 n.s.
  9 NM_015965.1 CGI-39* CGI-39 protein; cell death-regulatory protein GRIM19 Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. 19p13.2 1.43 12888 9485 n.s.
Proliferation           
  10 BC003689.1 HMG 17 High-mobility group (non-histone chromosomal protein 17) Nucleosomal binding protein. 1p36.1 1.22 46229 38384 n.s.
  11 NM_006694.1 JTB Jumping translocation breakpoint Up-regulation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). 1q21 1.39 26313 19283 0.030
  12 NM_001967.2 EIF4A2 Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A Protein translation. 3q28 1.92 41342 22341 0.019
  13 NM_005935.1 MLLT2 Myeloidlymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia Interaction with SIAH1 and SIAH2 proteins, the cell cycle control exerted by MLL-AF4 may be responsible of resistance to cell-death. 4q21 1.82 14146 8083 n.s.
  14 AF279903.1 EC45 60S ribosomal protein L15 A ribosomal protein that is a component of the 60S subunit. 3p24.1 1.85 60783 36597 n.s.
  15 NM_002948.1 RPL15 Ribosomal protein L15 A ribosomal protein that is a component of the 60S subunit, overexpressed in some esophageal tumors compared to normal matched tissues. 3p24.1 1.79 79109 46326 n.s.
  16 NM_001023.1 RPS20 Ribosomal protein S20 A ribosomal protein that is a component of the 40S subunit. 8q12 1.35 78126 58507 n.s.
  17 NM_000995.1 RPL34 Ribosomal protein L34 Component of the 60S subunit. 4q25 1.85 92356 52954 n.s.
  18 NM_006098.1 GNB2L1 Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) Regulates G1/S progression by suppressing Src kinase activity. 5q35.3 1.32 73713 57754 n.s.
  19 NM_007104.2 RPL10A Ribosomal protein L10a Downregulated in the thymus by cyclosporin-A (CsA), an immunosuppressive drug. 6p21.3-p21.2 1.49 77178 54218 n.s.
  20 BC000734.1 EIF3S6 Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 Protein translation. 8q22-q23 1.38 51705 37233 n.s.
  21 NM_003756.1 EIF3S3 Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 Protein translation, overexpression of EIF3S3 is associated with breast and prostate cancer. 8q24.11 1.49 38725 25795 n.s.
  22 BC000524.1 RPS6 Ribosomal protein S6 Protein synthesis, cytoplasmic ribosomal protein that is a component of the 40S subunit. 9p21 1.23 99499 83221 n.s.
  23 NM_001417.1 EIF4B Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4B Stimulate the nuclease activity of herpes simplex virus. 12q13.13 1.35 15184 11509 n.s.
  24 NM_000968.1 RPL4 Ribosomal protein L4 Component of the 60S subunit. 15q22 1.30 118180 92600 n.s.
  25 NM_015920.1 LOC51065 40S ribosomal protein S27 Similarity with ribosomal protein S27. 15q22.1 1.67 24852 15517 0.043
  26 NM_001009.1 RPS5 Ribosomal protein S5 Variable expression of this gene in colorectal cancers compared to adjacent normal tissues, although no correlation between the severity of this disease has been observed. 19q13.4 1.54 57497 38110 0.033
  27 NM_016091.1 HSPC025 HSPC025 Interacts with Int-6 and is associated with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3. 22q 1.45 58905 41562 0.043
  28 L22453.1 TARBP-b HIV-1 TAR RNA binding protein (RPL3) Encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 60S subunit; the protein can bind to the HIV-1 TAR mRNA, and the protein probably contributes to tat-mediated transactivation. 22q13 1.47 86865 59742 n.s.
  29 NM_006013.1 RPL10 Ribosomal protein L10 This gene encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 60S subunit. Xq28 1.27 127604 102770 n.s.
  30 NM_014315.1 LCP host cell factor homolog Transcriptional coactivator which coordinates the assembly of enhancer complex through direct interactions with viral and cellular trans-activators. 14q21.3-q22.1 1.92 12588 6756 0.003
Metabolism           
  31 NM_015958.1 LOC51611 CGI-30 protein Activities of Dipthine synthase, methyltransferase, and transferase. 1p21.2 1.67 7739 4726 n.s.
  32 NM_000847 GSTA3 Glutathione S-transferase A3 Involved in cellular defense against toxic, carcinogenic, and pharmacologically active electrophilic compounds. 6p12.1 5.00 1557 135 0.005
  33 NM_002633.1 PGM1 Phosphoglucomutase 1 Regulatory enzyme in cellular glucose utilization and energy homeostasis. 1p31 2.22 22301 10170 0.044
  34 BC006229.1 CYC5b Cytochrome c oxidase subunit Vb Terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. 2cen-q13 2.00 17780 9105 0.015
  35 NM_001862.1 COX5B Cytochrome c oxidase subunit Vb Terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. 2cen-q13 1.85 26820 14737 0.035
  36 NM_002492.1 NDUFB5 NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex A subunit of the multisubunit NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). 3q27.1 1.67 18898 11821 n.s.
  37 NM_021122.2 FACL2 Fatty-acid-Coenzyme A ligase Plays a role in lipid biosynthesis and fatty acid degradation. 4q34-q35 2.50 39142 15864 n.s.
  38 BC005270.1 ND4FS4 NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 4 Multisubunit enzyme complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, plays a vital role in cellular ATP production. 5q11.1 1.85 10920 5956 n.s.
  39 NM_001867.1 COX7C Cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIc Mitochondrial respiratory chain, catalyzes the electron transfer from reduced cytochrome c to oxygen. 5q14 2.17 55286 26201 0.013
  40 BC003674.1 NDUFA2 NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex Multisubunit enzyme complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, plays a vital role in cellular ATP production. 5q31 1.67 9562 5854 n.s.
  41 NM_014402.1 QP-C Low molecular mass ubiquinone-binding protein Activities of oxidoreductase, and ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase. 5q31.1 1.69 32210 19064 n.s.
  42 BC001917.1 MDH2 Malate dehydrogenase 2, NAD (mitochondrial) Oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate (citric acid cycle). 7p12.3-q11.2 1.30 24490 19165 n.s.
  43 NM_002489.1 NDUFA4 NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex Multisubunit enzyme complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, plays a vital role in cellular ATP production. 7p21.3 1.59 22038 14006 n.s.
  44 NM_005004.1 NDUFB8 NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex Multisubunit enzyme complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. 10q23.2-q23.33 1.41 25375 18105 n.s.
  45 NM_004074.1 COX8 Cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIII Terminal enzyme of the respiratory chain. 11q12-q13 1.37 21360 15941 n.s.
  46 NM_004549.1 NDUFC2 NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 Multisubunit enzyme complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. 11q13.4 1.59 33921 21642 n.s.
  47 AF042165 COX7CP1 Cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIc Terminal component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. 13q14-q21 2.08 40375 19940 0.003
  48 NM_001861.1 COX4 Cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV Mitochondrial respiratory chain. 16q22-qter 1.25 54196 44561 n.s.
  49 L47162.1 FALDH Human fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase Detoxification of aldehydes generated by alcohol metabolism and lipid peroxidation. 17p11.2 2.50 16420 6898 0.038
  50 NM_000382.1 ALDH3A2 Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family Detoxification of aldehydes generated by alcohol metabolism and lipid peroxidation. 17p11.2 3.33 19513 5867 0.020
  51 NM_021074.1 NDUFV2 NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) flavoprotein 2 Activities of NADH dehydrogenase, electron carrier, and oxidoreductase. 18p11.31-p11.2 1.82 20847 11262 n.s.
  52 M22865.1 CYb5 Human cytochrome b5 Cytochrome c oxidase activity. 18q23 3.57 36175 11654 n.s.
  53 M22976.1 cyt b5 Human cytochrome b5, 3 end Cytochrome c oxidase activity. 18q23 3.70 22288 6090 n.s.
  54 NM_001914.1 CYB5 Cytochrome b-5 Cytochrome c oxidase activity. 18q23 3.33 31694 10220 n.s.
  55 NM_013387.1 HSPC051 Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex Activities of oxidoreductase, and ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase. 22cen-q12.3 1.43 15592 11200 n.s.
  56 NM_001866.1 COX7B Cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIb Encoded by COX, the terminal component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, catalyzes the electron transfer from reduced cytochrome c to oxygen. Xq13.3 1.37 29860 21796 n.s.
  57 NM_004541.2 NDUFA1 NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex Codes for an essential component of complex I of the respiratory chain, which transfers electrons from NADH to ubiquinone. Xq24 2.27 25486 11413 0.026
Cell communication           
  58 BC002669.1 NR2 Nuclear receptor subfamily 2 Predicted to encode proteins that are very similar in primary structure to receptors for steroid hormones or thyroid hormone (T3). 19p13.1 1.51 7213 4917 n.s.
  59 NM_004182.1 UXT Ubiquitously-expressed transcript Interacts with the N-terminus of the androgen receptor and plays a role in facilitating receptor-induced transcriptional activation. Xp11.23-p11.22 1.59 11609 7489 n.s.
  60 M92439.1 LeuP Human leucine-rich protein Activate expression of MDR1 and MVP (key components of the cytotoxic defense network). 2p21 1.92 6429 3379 n.s.
Adhesion           
  61 NM_006893.1 LGTN Ligatin A role in neuroplasticity by modulating cell-cell interactions, intracellular adhesion, and protein binding at membrane surfaces. 1q31-q32 1.70 9444 5566 n.s.
  62 M80927.1 CHI3L1** Human glycoprotein -39 Extracellular matrix structural constituent, sugar binding, and hydrolase activity. 1q32.1 7.69 31265 5550 n.s.
  63 NM_015717.1 LANGERIN Langerhans cell specific c-type lectin Expressed only in Langerhans cells which are immature dendritic cells of the epidermis and mucosa. 2p13 4.00 4586 1323 0.023
  64 NM_007234.2 DCTN3 Dynactin 3 (p22) Involved in a diverse array of cellular functions, including ER-to-Golgi transport, the centripetal movement of lysosomes and endosomes, spindle formation, cytokinesis, chromosome movement, nuclear positioning, and axonogenesis. 9p13 1.45 13690 9694 n.s.
  65 NM_018663.1 LOC55895 Peroxisomal membrane protein Peroxisome organization and biogenesis (assembly and arrangement of peroxisome). 12q24.33 3.45 6928 2170 n.s.
Detoxification           
  66 NM_001512.1 GSTA4 Glutathione S-transferase A4 Involved in cellular defense against toxic, carcinogenic, and pharmacologically active electrophilic compounds. 6p12.1 1.41 25838 18009 n.s.
  67 NM_004528.1 MGST3 Microsomal glutathione S-transferase 3 Involved in the production of leukotrienes and prostaglandin E, important mediators of inflammation. 1q23 1.96 22933 12007 0.023
  68 NM_002413.1 MGST2 Microsomal glutathione S-transferase 2 Catalyzes the conjugation of leukotriene A4 and reduced glutathione to produce leukotriene C4. 4q28.3 1.82 10888 6065 n.s.
  69 NM_015917.1 LOC51064 Glutathione S-transferase subunit 13 homolog Activities of glutathione transferase, protein disulfide oxidoreductase, and transferase. 7 1.75 9422 5458 n.s.
  70 NM_001752.1 CAT Catalase Abnormal expression of catalase in the eutopic and ectopic endometrium strongly suggests pathologic involvement of free radicals in endometriosis and adenomyosis. 11p13 1.61 27669 17923 n.s.
  71 L19185 NKEFB n.s. Human natural killer cell enhancing factor Reduce hydrogen peroxide and alkyl hydroperoxides. 19p13.2 2.50 39723 17286 n.s.
unknown           
  72 NM_016098.1 LOC51660 HSPC040 protein Unknown Function. 6q27 3.33 15481 4682 0.038
  73 AL356115 KIAA1128 KIAA1128 protein Unknown Function. 10q23.2 1.38 126962 93488 0.048
  74 AK022248 FLJ12186 FLJ12186 Unknown Function. 14q22.3 1.38 15261 11116 n.s.
  75 NM_004868.1 GPSN2 Glycoprotein, synaptic 2 Unknown Function. 19p13.12 1.69 19830 11888 n.s.
  76 AF151056.1 HSPC222 HSPC222 Unknown Function. unknown 1.59 40513 26566 0.030
  1. The accession number, the symbol, the description of the genes, their function, their chromosome localization, the change fold, the raw signal (mean value), and the p values of the ANOVA analysis are shown. The accession numbers in bold represent the 42 genes identified by PAM and ANOVA (p < 0.05), which were significantly differentially expressed. The symbols marked in bold represent the genes verified by quantitative real-time RT-PCR.
  2. A) Up-regulated genes (42) in non-melanoma skin cancer.
  3. B) Down-regulated genes (76) in non – melanoma skin cancer.
  4. * significant expression difference verified by quantitative real-time RT-PCR.
  5. ** positive with two different affymetrix numbers (209395_at and 209396_s_at).
  6. No., numbers; T, Tumor (AK and SCC), N, normal skin; AK, actinic keratosis; SCC, squamous cell carcinoma; n.s., not significant.