Tasquinimod effects on gene expression in LNCaP cells analyzed with DNA microarray. Altered gene expression induced by tasquinimod in LNCaP cell cultures. (A) Data plot of observed M ((M) = log2(Int1/Int2)) versus A (average intensity) from in vitro microarray experiment averaged over biological replicates (n = 4). THBS1 (arrow), GDF15 and CYP1A1 were significant outliers in all arrays analyzed (FDR < 10%; Table 1). (B) Validation of microarray data with semi-qRT-PCR confirmed the up-regulation of THBS, GDF14 and CYP1A1 (red bars; Δcp of 2.32 equals to a 5-fold change in mRNA expression). Expressed data represents the mean ± SD of at least two independent experiments. (*) p ≤ 0.05 and (**) p ≤ 0.01 compared with untreated control (Student's t-test).