The modulation of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and vimentin mRNA levels by WIF1 transfection is associated with its down-regulation of Slug, and Twist expression. A & B, quantitative real-time PCR analysis of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin, Slug, and Twist mRNA in the transfectants. Gene expression is presented as fold increase in Δ Ct compared with PCDNA3.1 vector control transfectants. Columns, mean of four independent quantitative real-time PCR experiments; Bars, ± SE. C, Western blot analysis of expression of Slug, Twist, and β-actin shown by a representative blot from three independent experiments.