TM treatment significantly inhibits oral squamous cell invasiveness. TM effect on tumor cell invasiveness was examined by Matrigel invasion assay. A; representative photomicrographs of invaded cells with (TM+) or without TM (TM-) treatment.B; number of tumor cells that had invaded through the Matrigel were counted in 5 high power fields. *, represents a significant difference (p < 0.05) as compared to the control group. C; Culture supernatants from OSCC-3 cells co-cultured with EC-Bcl-2 or EC-VC were resolved using 10% polyacrylamide gelatin gels. After electrophoresis, the gels were developed and stained by 0.5% Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 solution to visualize the bands. D; the band density was measured and expressed as average band density. *, represents a significant difference (p < 0.05) as compared to the OSCC-3-EC-VC group and **, represents a significant difference (p < 0.05) as compared to the OSCC-3-EC-Bcl-2 group.