The effect of MAL on cell invasion and tumorigenicity. (A) The representative picture shows that stable cells expressing MAL were selected according to Western blotting after the single-cell cluster was cultured in 600 μg/ml of G418 for four weeks, and the stable cells #12 with exogenous expression of MAL were further validated by immunofluorescence as indicated in the lower graphic. (B) Cell invasion of clone #6 and #12 were evaluated with a Matrigel assay. Cell counts represent mean values per field from five fields over three independent experiments (lower) (mean ± SD). (C) Increased ectopic MAL expression inhibited xenograft tumor growth of Tca stable cells #12 relative to Tca stable cells #6 that do not express MAL. These cells were injected subcutaneously into nude mice, and tumors were excised after four weeks. Tumors weights were measured (mean ± SD.), and MAL expression in tumors was assessed using Western blotting.