NF-κB mediates TNF-α-induced expression of ATX. Parthenolide pretreated Hep3B cells (4 hours), and stable cell lines Hep3B-IκBαSR and Hep3B-pQCXIN were stimulated with or without 10 ng/mL human TNF-α for 16 hours. ATX mRNA expression was determined by qRT-PCR (top panel), Values are the mean ± SD of three experiments. ** P < 0.01, * P < 0.05. ATX protein expression was determined by immunoblot (IB) (Bottom panel). β-actin expression was used as a loading control.