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Table 1 MicroRNAs involved in epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in lung cancer

From: MicroRNA modulators of epigenetic regulation, the tumor microenvironment and the immune system in lung cancer

MicroRNA Chromosome Type of regulation Target Functional consequence References
miR-124a-1 8 Hypermethylation mediated silencing CDK6 Oncogene activation, repression of tumor suppression Lujambio et al., 2007 [28]
miR-124a-2 8 pRb
miR-124a-3 20
mir-199a-1 19 Hypermethylation mediated silencing c-Met Anti-apoptotic function Kim et al., 2008 [29]
mir-199a-2 1 (ERK2) Oncogene activation
miR-200c 12 Hypermethylation mediated down-regulation ZEB1 Promotion of EMT and metastasis Ceppi et al., 2010 [30]
miR-141 12 Hypermethylation ZEB1/2   Lopez Serra; Esteller, 2012 [31]
miR-429 1 Hypermethylation ZEB1/2   Lopez Serra; Esteller 2012 [31]
miR-9-3 15 Methylation mediated down-regulation    Heller et al., 2012 [32]
miR-193a 17 Methylation mediated down-regulation   Altered expression regulation of genes involved in Proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and adhesion Heller et al., 2012 [32]
miR-34b/c 11 Promoter hypermethylation mediated silencing (c-Met) Oncogene activation, metastasis formation Wang et al., 2011 [33]
Watanabe et al., 2011 [34]
miR-503 X Promoter methylation mediated silencing FANCA Modulate sensitivity to cisplatin regulate apoptosis Li et al., 2014[35]
miR-126 9 Host gene promoter methylation mediated silencing Crk Oncogene activation Watanabe et al., 2011 [34]
miR-196a-1 17 Demethylation mediated up-regulation HOXA5 Promotion of cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Liu Xiang-hua et al., 2012 [36]
miR-196a-2 12
miR-212 17 Histone tail methylation mediated down-regulation PED Anti-apoptotic function Incoronato et al., 2011 [37]
miR-373 19 Histone acetylation mediated silencing IRAK2 Promotion of cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, Pro-EMT function Seol et al., 2014 [38]
miR-29a 7 MicroRNA’s downregulation mediates DNMT DNMT3a Repression of tumor suppression Fabbri et al., 2007 [5]
miR-29b-1 7 Up-regulation DNMT3b
miR-29b-2 1 (FHIT
miR-29c 1 WHOX)
miR-487b 14 MicroRNA’s repression mediates target Genes overexpression SUZ12, BMI1, WNT5A, MYC, K-ras Promotion of tumor progression and metastasis Xi et al.,2013 [44]
miR-449 5 MicroRNA’s down-regulation mediates HDAC1 HDAC1 Repression of tumor suppression Jeon et al., 2011 [45]
Up-regulation Promotion of tumor metastasis
miR-101-1 1 MicroRNA’s down-regulation mediates EZH2 EZH2 Promotion of EMT and tumor metastasis Cho et al., 2011 [46]
miR-101-2 9 Up-regulation (CDH1, MMP-2)
miR-138-1 3 MicroRNA’s down-regulation mediates EZH2 EZH2 Promotion of proliferation, repression of apoptosis, Disruption of cell cycle arrest Zhang et al., 2013 [47]
miR-138-2 16 Up-regulation
  1. A compilation of the most significant microRNAs targeted by epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, including those that modulate epigenetic changes in lung cancer. The most important functional outcomes are described. Genes placed in brackets are not targeted directly.