Expression of HOTAIR, HOXC and HOXD genes in benign and cancerous urothelial tissues. (a) Boxplot graph illustrating expression level of HOTAIR in UC tissue sample set 1 (T, n = 19) as compared to normal bladder tissues (N, n = 10; p = 0.53). Expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and normalized to TBP. The range of HOTAIR expression levels among UC tissues is illustrated in the second graph with the highest HOTAIR expression found in three pT3 high grade tumors. (b, c) Boxplot graphs for indicated genes in tissues of set 1 (p-values as indicated; *p ≤ 0.05, **p ≤ 0.001). (d) HOTAIR expression levels for a second set of UC tissue samples (Set 2, n: T = 108, N = 7) shown as boxplot diagram (p = 0.3) and as a range of expression levels differing among patients. (e) Correlation between expression of HOTAIR and HOXC11, HOXD10 and HOXD12 is plotted, where “r” denotes the Pearson correlation coefficient. Black squares denote tumor samples, grey rhombs denote benign tissues.