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Fig. 7 | Molecular Cancer

Fig. 7

From: PKM2 promotes tumor angiogenesis by regulating HIF-1α through NF-κB activation

Fig. 7

PKM2 contributes to tumor growth and angiogenesis by regulating HIF-1α via NF-κB activation. a in physiological conditions PKM2 and p65 reside in the cytosol. Hypoxic insult is followed by translocation of PKM2 and p65 to the nucleus in pancreatic cancer cells. Following the interaction with PKM2, NF-κB subunit p65 activates the transcription of HIF-1α and its target gene VEGF-A. As a result, augmented secretion of VEGF translates to a boost in blood vessel formation, which in turn contributes to tumor growth. b in the absence of PKM2, transcription and secretion of VEGF-A is still present, yet to a lower level. While our data do not exclude the VEGF secretion as a result of sole NF-κB activation or HIF-1α accumulation, they emphasize the essential role of PKM2 in the regulation of HIF-1α and NF-κB transcription factor during tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth of hypoxic pancreatic tumors

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