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Table 2 Post - Translational Events in EMT.

From: Regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition through epigenetic and post-translational modifications

Post- translational event Modified protein
Hydoxylation HIF1A
Phosphorylation SNAIL
Par6
SUMOylation FoxM1
TFAP2C
SIP1
Glycosylation SNAIL
  1. Hydroxylated HIF-1α is stabilized and promotes EMT by decreasing epithelial markers such as E-cadherin and gaining mesenchymal markers such as α-SMA and FSP1. Phosphorylation of SNAIL mediated either by PKD1 or GSK-3β results in SNAIL degradation by the proteasome. Phosphorylated Par6 interacts with the E3-ubiquitin ligase Smurf-1 that targets RhoA for degradation, leading to the disassembly of tight junctions. FoxM1 SUMOylation leads to repression of miR-200 tumor suppressors that enhance the expression of E-cadherin and suppress the expression of ZEB1 and ZEB2. TFAP2C undergoes SUMOylation that blocks its ability to induce the expression of luminal genes and helps it to maintain basal like features. SIP1 SUMOylation leads to the recruitment of the co-repressor CtBP which maintains CDH1 expression. Lastly, SNAIL is glycosylated under hyperglycemic conditions to promote EMT