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Table 1 Actions of exosomal miRNAs exchanged between cells of the TME

From: Essential role of miRNAs in orchestrating the biology of the tumor microenvironment

 miRNA Cell of origin Accepting cell Pathway/target Effect on TME Ref.
 miR-135b Multiple myeloma Endothelial cells HIF-1/FIH-1 ↑angiogenesis [11]
 miR-494 Lung cancer Endothelial cells PTEN/AKT/eNOS ↑angiogenesis [10]
 miR-503 Endothelial cells Breast cancer Cyclin D2 and D3 ↓Tumor growth and invasion [22]
 miR-1246 Colorectal cancer Endothelial Cells PML/Smad 1/5/8 ↑ Growth & migration [9]
Stromal compartment:
 miR-105 Breast cancer Endothelial cells ZO-1 ↓Tight junctions
↑Metastatic progression
 miR-202-3p CLL Stromal cells c-fos/ATM ↑Tumor growth [53]
Immune system:
 miR-29a NSCLC TAM TLR8/NF-κB ↑Growth & metastasis [75]
 miR-21 NSCLC TAM TLR8/NF-κB ↑Growth & metastasis [75]
NBL TAM TLR8/NF-κB ↑miR-155 [76]
 miR-155 TAM NBL TERF1 ↑ Drug resistance [76]
 miR-23a Hypoxic tumor derived NK cells CD107a ↓ NK cell response [95]
 miR-214 Tumor cells (various) Regulatory T cells PTEN ↑Immunosuppression [96]
 miR-223 TAM Breast cancer Mef2c/β-catenin ↑ Invasion [82]
  1. Abbreviations: TAMs Tumor Associated Macrophages, CLL chronic lymphocytic leukemia, NSCLC non-small cell lung cancer, NBL Neuroblastoma