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Table 2 Biomarkers or potential candidates to IGF-IR inhibitory drugs

From: IGF-IR signaling in epithelial to mesenchymal transition and targeting IGF-IR therapy: overview and new insights

Biomarkers Preclinical/clinical Tumor type Anti-IGF-IR strategy Reference
EMT marker Preclinical Hepatocellular carcinoma TKI Linsitinib [8]
EMT marker Clinical Metastatic colorectal Mab dalotuzumab [127]
IR-A, IR-B, total IR Clinical Breast cancer Mab cixutumumab [108]
IRS1 Preclinical Breast and colorectal cancer Mab h10H5 [145]
IRS1 Preclinical Breast cancer TKI NVP-AEW541 [146]
IGF-I Clinical Metastatic colorectal Mab dalotuzumab [16]
PIK3CA Preclinical Different cancer cells TKI Linsitinib [136]
Potential biomarkers Preclinical/clinical Tumor type   Reference
Cbl-b Preclinical Gastric cancer   [32]
MEMO1 Preclinical Breast cancer   [132]
CCN6 (WISP3) Preclinical Breast cancer   [133, 134]
Mucin 1 Preclinical Breast cancer   [137]
MicroRNA-7 Preclinical Gastric cancer   [139]
  1. Mab monoclonal antibody, TKI tyrosine kinase inhibitor, IR insulin receptor, IRS1 insulin receptor substrate 1, IGF-I insulin-like growth factor-I, PIK3CA phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide, Cbl-b E3 ubiquitin ligase Casitas B cell lymphoma-b, MEMO1 mediator of ErbB2-driven cell motility 1, MUC1 mucin1