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Table 3 Diagnostic, prognostic and predictive applications of selected circulating molecules

From: Liquid biopsy: a step forward towards precision medicine in urologic malignancies

Molecule Clinical application Cancer type Markers References
CTCsa Diagnostic Bladder cancer Cell count [49]
Prognostic RCC, bladder and prostate cancer Cell count [45, 51]
Predictive (recurrence and treatment response) Prostate cancer Cell count [52]
miRNAs Diagnostic RCC, bladder and prostate cancer miR-210, miR-1233, miR-125b, miR-126, let-7e, let-7c, miR-30c, miR-622, and miR-1285 [63]
Prognostic Bladder and prostate cancer miR-146a-5p [57]
Predictive (treatment response) Prostate cancer miR-21 [68]
lncRNAsb Diagnostic RCC, bladder and prostate cancer PCA3, lncRNA-LET, PVT1, PANDAR, PTENP1, linc00963, UCA1, lncRNA H19 [7375, 77]
Prognostic Prostate cancer PCAT18 [79]
Predictive (treatment response) Bladder cancer UCA1 [76]
mRNAsc Diagnostic RCC, bladder and prostate cancer CAIX, UBE2C [83, 85]
Prognostic RCC, bladder and prostate cancer B7-H3, CK20, cBMP6 [84, 86]
Predictive (recurrence and treatment response) Prostate cancer AR-V7, PSCA, [89, 90]
Proteins Diagnostic RCC, bladder and prostate cancer AQP1, PLIN2, APOA1, APOA 2, APOB, APOC2, APOC3, APOE, β-MSMB [99, 100, 104, 105, 108]
Prognostic RCC and prostate cancer Hsp27, KNG1, APOD, FG, HP, CAV1, CAV2 [98, 109]
Peptides Diagnostic RCC and prostate cancer - [101, 110]
Prognostic Bladder cancer - [106, 107]
Exosomes Diagnostic RCC and prostate cancer miR-126-3p, miR-449a, miR-34b-5p, miR-34a, miR-148a [118, 119, 122]
Prognostic Bladder cancer HOTAIR, HOX-AS-2, ANRIL, linc-RoR [120]
Predictive (recurrence and treatment response) RCC and prostate cancer LncARSR, MDR-1, MDR -3, PABP4 [119, 122, 123]
  1. aCirculating tumor cell, bLong non-coding RNA, cMessenger RNA