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Table 1 MicroRNAs and exosomal miRNAs mediate CAF formation and activation

From: Exosomal miRNAs and miRNA dysregulation in cancer-associated fibroblasts

Differentially expressed microRNAs Cancer type Mechanism Cancer cell function change Ref
Exosomal miR-155 Pancreatic cancer Down-regulation of its target TP53INP1 Not mentioned [50]
Exosomal miR-211 Melanoma cancer Inhibition of IGF2R, hyper-activating IGF1R/MAPK signaling. Proliferation, motility, collagen contraction [55]
Exosomal miR-21/−155/−146a/−148a and let-7 g Chronic lymphocytic leukemia Not mentioned Not mentioned [52]
Exosomal miR-133b Prostate cancer IL-6 stimulation of CAF released miR133b to active NF Not mentioned [54]
Exosomal miR-9 Triple-negative breast cancer Not mentioned Migration and invasion [53]
Down-regulated miR-1/−206 and up-regulated miR-31 NSCLC FOXO3a/VEGFA/CCL2 signaling Migration, colony formation, TAMs recruitment, tumor growth, and angiogenesis [56]
Down-regulated miR-31/−214 and up-regulated miR-155 Ovarian cancer miR-214 target CCL5 Growth, invasion, motility [57]
Up-regulated miR-210 Prostate cancer Overexpression of hypoxia-up-regulated miR-210 EMT and angiogenesis [62]
Up-regulated miR-21 Human normal primary fibroblasts MiR-21 binds to the 3’UTR of Smad7 mRNA and inhibits its translation to reduce the competition between TGFBR1; Smad 7 binds to Smad 2 and 3. Not mentioned [63]
Up-regulated miR-21 Esophageal cancer Not mentioned Not mentioned [64]
Up-regulated miR-27a/b Esophageal cancer Not mentioned Increased secretion of TGF-β leads to cisplatin resistance [59]
UP-regulated miR-7 Head and neck cancer Not mentioned MiR-7 down-regulates RASSF2, which decreases PAR-4 secretion from CAFs, enhancing cell proliferation and migration [60]
Up-regulated miR-199a/−214 Pancreatic cancer Not mentioned Migration and proliferation [65]
Down-regulated miR-149 Gastric cancer MiR-149 inhibits the activation of fibroblasts by reducing
IL-6 and EP2 expression
EMT and stem-like properties [66]
Up-regulated miR-409-3p/−409-5p Prostate cancer Not mentioned Over-expressed miR-409 in NFs confers a CAF phenotype and leads to miR-409 release by extracellular vesicles to promote tumorigenesis and EMT [84]
Down-regulated miR-200 s Breast cancer Down-regulated miR-200 s up-regulates fibronectin and lysyl oxidase Migration, invasion, metastasis [61]