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Table 1 Factors of primary soil-to-seed signaling events involved in cancer metastasis

From: Factors involved in cancer metastasis: a better understanding to “seed and soil” hypothesis

Stroma cell type Molecules Underlying mechanisms Cancer type Ref
TAMs miR-223 Regulates the invasiveness of cancer cells through exosome-mediated delivery of oncogenic miRNAs. Breast cancer [89]
CCL18 Promotes the invasiveness of cancer cells by triggering integrin clustering and enhancing their adherence to extracellular matrix. Breast cancer [90]
CCL20 CCL20 secreted by TAMs enhances the invasive properties of cancer cells via its unique receptor CCR6. Pancreatic cancer [91]
Lcn2 TAM-derived Lcn2 promotes cancer cell dissemination by inducing EMT and resulting in increased cancer cell motility and invasion. Breast cancer [92]
MSC-derived chemokines act on cancer cells to enhance their motility, invasion and metastasis. Breast cancer [93, 94]
DDR2 MSC-derived DDR2 in the primary tumor endows cancer cells with growth and migratory advantage through alignment with collagen. Breast cancer [95]
ECs PHD2 Haplodeficiency of PHD2 normalizes the endothelial lining and vessel maturation, resulting in inhibited metastasis. Melanoma
Lung cancer
Pancreatic cancer
IL6 EC-derived IL-6 triggers the increased invasion of cancer cell. Prostate cancer [97]
Undetermined EC-bound tumor cells show a significantly higher anoikis resistance via the activation of Src-FAK pathway. Squamous carcinoma [98]
CAFs SDF-1/CXCL12 Promote tumor growth and angiogenesis through their ability to secrete stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1). Breast cancer [99]
Cav1 Stromal Cav1 remodels peri- and intratumoral microenvironments to facilitate tumor invasion, correlating with increased metastatic potency. Breast cancer [100]
  Exosomes Fibroblast-secreted exosomes promote breast cancer cell protrusive activity and motility via Wnt-planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling. Breast cancer [101]
Adipocytes Undetermined Adipocytes promote tumor cell invasion and EMT program. Melanoma [105]
Undetermined Pre-adipocytes increase prostate cancer metastasis via modulation of signaling pathways. Prostate cancer [106]
IGFBP-2 Adipocytes stimulate invasion of cancer cells by secreting IGFBP-2. Breast cancer [107]