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Table 2 Clinical biomarkers for the prognosis and prediction of melanoma

From: Liquid biomarkers in melanoma: detection and discovery

  Characteristics Associated with worse outcomes Reference
Prognostic biomarkers
Primary melanoma Thickness Thick melanomas [147]
Ulceration Present [147]
Histology Nodular and acral subtype [148]
Mitotic rate Presence of mitosis [149]
Age > 60 [147, 149]
Site Trunk, head and neck [147, 149]
Mutation status BRAF or NRAS positive [150]
Stage III melanoma Lymph node stage (AJCC) IIIC [151]
Nodal status Increased number of positive lymph nodes [147]
Tumor burden Macroscopic disease [147]
Ulceration on primary melanoma Present [147]
Extracapsular extension Present [151]
Metastatic melanoma Distant metastatic site Visceral metastasis [147, 152]
Number of visceral metastasis ≥ 2 [152, 153]
LDH Above upper limit of normal [152, 153]
Serum albumin < 3.5 g/deciliter [153]
ECOG performance status ≥ 1 [152]
Hematological parameters Abnormal platelets [152]
Predictive biomarkers
MAPK therapy BRAF Status No BRAF V600 mutation [131]
LDH Above upper limit of normal [19]
ECOG performance status ≥ 1 [19]
Number of organ sites containing metastases ≥ 3 [19]
Sites of disease Visceral only [19]
Baseline disease stage IVM1c [19]
Sum of lesion diameter ≥ median (58 mm) [19]
Immunotherapy LDH Above upper limit of normal [154]
Baseline tumor size ≥ median (102 mm) [154]
Stage IVM1a or IVM1c [154]