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Fig. 2 | Molecular Cancer

Fig. 2

From: Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in breast cancer: signaling, therapeutic implications and challenges

Fig. 2

RTK-regulated signaling in breast cancer progression. VEGFR activates JAK/STAT signaling pathway to induce cancer stem cell phenotype through Myc and Sox2 expression. Mutant p53 induces the expression of VEGFR through the interaction with SWI/SNF complex. EGFR-regulated signaling also plays pivotal role in angiogenesis and metastasis. EGFR regulates the activation of JAK/STAT and MAPK signaling pathway to induce expression of Sox2 and other stem cell markers leading to enrichment of cancer stem cells. EGFR induces Akt phosphorylation to promote inflammation. PDGFR is expressed on stromal cells such as fibroblasts and is a marker of fibroblast activation. PDGFR-regulated STAT activation is involved in regulation of miR-9-mediated differentiation of cancer cells to endothelial cells leading to angiogenesis. FGFR-activated MAPK pathway induces EMT and CSC phenotype. Cooperation between the FGFR and HER2 regulates nuclear translocation of Cyclin D1 leading to enhanced cancer cell proliferation

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