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Table 2 The role of gut microbiota in PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors therapy

From: Biomarkers for predicting efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors

Bacteria Main effect on immunity Prediction of treatment effect Model Ref.
A. muciniphila Increased recruitment of CCR9+CXCR3+CD4+ T cells into tumor bed Effective anti-tumor response Mouse/Human [89]
E. hirae Increased IL-12 secreted by DC Effective anti-tumor response Mouse/Human [89]
E. faeciumC. aerofaciens B. adolescentisK. pneumoniae V. parvulaP. merdae Lactobacillus sp. B. longum Increased neoantigen specific CD8+ T cell and decreased Fox3P+CD4+ Treg in tumor microenvironment Effective anti-tumor response Mouse/Human [134]
Bifidobacterium Increased IFN-γ production and major histocompatibility complex Class IIhi DC Effective anti-tumor response Mouse [87]
Faecalibacterium Increased peripheral effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cell Effective anti-tumor response Mouse/Human [88]
Bacteroidales Increased peripheral Treg and myeloid derived suppressor cell Poor anti-tumor response Mouse/Human [88]
  1. Abbreviations: IFN-γ interferon-γ, Treg regulatory T cell, DC dendritic cell