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Table 1 Role of NLRP3 inflammasome activation or suppression in cancer development

From: Role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in cancer

Type of cancer Source of experimental evidence Outcome Suggested mechanism References
HNSCC - HNSCC cell lines (A253) -Oral cancer tissue Activation of NLRP3 inflmmasome closely associated with survival and invasiveness of HNSCC Activation of IL-1β [99]
-HNSCC tissue - HNSCC cell lines(CAL27, SCC9, SCC25, and FaDu) - transgenic mouse HNSCC model NLRP3 inflammasome related with the tumorgenesis and CSCs markers self-renewal activation -overexpression of CSCs markers (BMI1, ALDH1 and CD44) [100]
GBM -U87 and GL261 xenograft mouse GBM model NLRP3 inflammasome involved in resistance to radiotherapy -regulation of numerous aging-related genes in hippocampus [150]
OSCC - OSC cells lines (WS UHN6 and C AL27) -NLRP3−/− and Caspase1−/− mice -OSCC tissue NLRP3 inflammasome increased resistance of OSCC to 5-FU Promotion of the IL-1β production [106]
BC - BC cell lines(LLC and E0771) -C57BL/6 mice tumor-infiltrating regulation of NLRP3 strongly linked with tumor invasiveness, migration and outcome IL-1β secretion and S1PR1 signaling [123]
GC -GC tissue -GC cell lines (SGC-7901, BGC-823, HGC-27 and AGS) -normal gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) NLRP3 inflammasome stimulates epithelial cells proliferation and GC carcinogenesis -IL-1 β secretion -enhance cyclin-D1 transcription [77]
CAC -NLRP3−/−, Pycard−/− and Caspase1−/− mice Mice with inflammasome compartment deficiency were extremely susceptible to AOM/DSS- induced colitis -reduction in IL-18 [67]
-NLRP3−/− mouse NLRP3−/− mouse is more susceptible to acute and recurrence CAC -increasing pro–IL-1β and IL-18 secretion [85]
-NLRP3−/− and Caspase1−/− mice NLRP3−/− and Caspase1−/− mice were more susceptible to AOM/DSS-induced inflammation and increased tumor burdens - NLRP3 inflammasome deficiency lead to reduction in secretion and activation of the tumor IFN-γ and STAT1 [86]
-NLRP3−/−, ASC−/−, Caspase1−/−, cathepsin B−/− or cathepsin L−/−mice- NLRP deficient mice were significantly protected from colitis IL-1β secretion was abrogated in macrophages without NLRP3, ASC or Caspase-1 [165]
CRC -CRC and adjacent normal tissue NLRP3 gene variation are correlated with worse survival -elevatating IL-1β and IL-6 levels [89]
CRC metastatic in liver -Inflammasome components −/− mouse NLRP3 inflammasome inhibits liver CRC metastatic growth -enhancing NK cell tumoricidal action [91]
Fibrosarcoma -NLRP3−/− mouse model NLRP3-deficient mice were less resistant to tumor formation -NLRP3 suppressed NK cell [116]
Melanoma -Human melanoma cell lines (A375) -mouse melanoma cell lines (B16F10) Inhibition of NLRP3 inflmmasome blocked melanoma migration -inhibition of NLRP3 inflmmasome suppressed secretion of cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 [139]
Cervical Cancer -HPV+ and adjacent normal tissue NLRP3 polymorphism related with a lower risk of HPV infection -innate immune anti-viral response - obliteration of virus persistence and viral elimination [144]
Lung cancer -human alveolar epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) NLRP3 inflmmasome regulate the proliferation and metastasis of lung cancer -promoting phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2, and CREB -enhancing the expression of Snail -decrement of E-cadherin expression [112]
HCC -HCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues -Down regulation of all of the NLRP3 inflammasome elements associated with HCC occurrence, advanced tumor stages and poor differentiation NR [96]
  1. Abbreviations: ASC apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, AOM/DSS Azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulphate, BC Breast cancer, CAC colitis-associated colorectal cancer, CSCs cancer stem cells, CRC Colorectal cancer, GC Gastric cancer, GBM Glioblastoma; HCC hepatocellular carcinoma, HNSCC head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in humans, NK Natural killer cell, OSCC oral squamous cell carcinoma, 5-FU 5-fluorouracil, NR not reported