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Fig. 2 | Molecular Cancer

Fig. 2

From: Effects of tumor metabolic microenvironment on regulatory T cells

Fig. 2

Immunosuppression of Tregs. (a)Tregs secrete granzyme B and perforin that act on effector cells and cause apoptosis. (b)Tregs secrete inhibitory cytokines that bind to receptors on the surface of effector cells and inhibit the immune response. (c) CTLA-4 on the surface of Tregs competes with CD80/CD86 on the surface of effector cells to inhibit their immune function and promote the secretion of IDO; IDO degrades tryptophan in tissues to kynurenine; deletion of tryptophan leads to effector cell apoptosis; and kynurenine promotes effector cell apoptosis and acts on Tres’s AhR to promote its proliferation. ICOS on the surface of Tregs binds to ICOSL on the surface of effector cells, promoting the effector cell secretion inhibitory cytokine IL-10. (d) CD73/CD39 on the surface of Tregs convert ATP in tissues to adenine, which binds to receptors on the surface of effector cells and inhibit their immune function

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