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Table 1 ROS and Their Roles in Cancer

From: Reactive oxygen species: a volatile driver of field cancerization and metastasis

ROS Roles in Cancer References
Generic ROS Activation of oncogenic Ras, Bcr-Abl, c-Myc which hyperactivates cell proliferation; induce Wnt/β-catenin pathway which increases metastatic potential; regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs); regulation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathways; contribution to drug resistance such as through high mutagenic rates [7, 11]
Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Promotes phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks)/RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (Akt) survival pathway; induces mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK) pro-proliferative signaling pathway; oxidative modification of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN); oncogenic stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α; conversion to hydroxyl radical [35, 102, 103]
Superoxide (O2•−) Conversion to H2O2, peroxynitrite; Stimulates AMPK activity to induce metastasis; oncogenic stabilization of HIF-1α [102, 104]
Hydroxyl radical (•OH) Initiates lipid peroxidation; promotes DNA mutagenesis [105, 106]