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Fig. 2 | Molecular Cancer

Fig. 2

From: Extracellular vesicles-mediated intercellular communication: roles in the tumor microenvironment and anti-cancer drug resistance

Fig. 2

Mechanisms of extracellular vesicles-mediated transfer of anti-cancer drug resistance. Extracellular vesicles can mediate drug resistance by directly exporting or sequestering cytotoxic drugs reducing their effective concentration at target sites. Extracellular vesicles can also compete with bona fide target cells for the binding of immunotherapeutic agents targeting cellular antigens. Extracellular vesicles also mediate transfer of drug resistance to drug-sensitive cancer cells through the horizontal transfer of specific bioactive cargoes including drug efflux pumps, prosurvival factors, inhibitors of apoptosis, and non-coding RNAs

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