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Table 1 The ongoing clinical trials of past two years which targets TAMs in pancreatic cancer

From: TAMing pancreatic cancer: combat with a double edged sword

S. No Curative Agent Mode of Action ClinicalTrial.gov ID Phase Expected Outcome (with regard to TAMs)
1. Nab-paclitaxel + Gemcitabine + OMP-59R5 Anti-Notch2/3 Antibody, macropinocytosis NCT01647828 II ↓ M2 origin and polarization
2. Olaparib + Cediranib PARP and VEGFR inhibitor NCT02498613 II ↓ M2 recruitment
3. CRS-207 + GVAX ± Nivolumab Irradiated GM-CSF, listeria antigen, Anti-PD-1 antibody NCT02243371 II ↑ Macrophage count
4. Sorafenib + Gemcitabine + Vorinostat + Radiotherapy VEGFR, PDGFR inhibitor HDAC inhibitor NCT02349867 I ↓M2 recruitment
5. Pexidartinib + Durvalumab CSF-1R, Kit and Flt3 inhibitor, anti-PD-1 antibody NCT02777710 I ↓ M2 polarization
6. Pembrolizumab + AMG820 Anti-PD-1 antibody, anti-CSF1R antibody NCT02713529 II ↓ M2 polarization
7. Gemcitabine/Nabpaclitaxel + MM141 Bispecific Her3 and IGF antibody, macropinocytosis NCT02399137 II ↓ M2 polarization
8. Galunisertib + Durvalumab TGF-β receptor inhibitor, anti-PD-L1 antibody NCT02734160 I ↓ M2 differentiation
9. Buparlisib + mFOLFOX6 PI3K inhibitor NCT01571024 I ↓ M2 polarization
10. GVAX + Cyclophosphamide + CRS-207 Listeria antigen, irradiated GM-CSF NCT01417000 II ↑ Macrophage count
11. Gemcitabine/Capecitabine + LY3023414 + Abemaciclib PI3K/DNA-PK/mTOR inhibitor CDK inhibitor NCT02981342 II ↓ M2 polarization
12. Nivolumab + Cabiralizumab Anti-PD-1 antibody, anti-CSF1R antibody NCT03599362 II ↓ M2 polarization and recruitment
13. Nivolumab + cabiralizumab + gemcitabine Anti-PD-1 antibody, anti-CSF1R antibody NCT03697564 IV ↓ M2 polarization and recruitment
14. Cyclophosphamide + GVAX + pembrolizumab + IMC-CS4 Listeria antigen,Anti-PD-1 antibody NCT03153410 I ↑ Macrophage count and ↓ M2 polarization
15. 5-fluorouracil + bevacizumab + leucovorin + oxaliplatin Anti-VEGF antibody NCT03127124 Ib ↓ M2 recruitment and differentiation
16. Capecitabine + temozolomide +/- Bevacizumab Anti-VEGF antibody NCT03351296 II ↓ M2 recruitment and differentiation
17. Palbociclib + Gedatolisib PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NCT03065062 I ↓ M2 polarization
18. Cabiralizumab + nivolumab + gemcitabine + Nabpaclitaxel Anti-PD-1 antibody, macropinocytosis, anti-CSF1R antibody NCT03336216 II ↓ M2 polarization and recruitment
  1. The observation of their outcomes will confirm the clear involvement of TAMs. The expected outcome based on the preclinical literature available is presented in the last column. The ↑ and ↓ signifies the increased and decreased respectively with the context.