Skip to main content

Table 1 Different cell populations exhibit distinct functions within the tumor microenvironment

From: Effect of tumor microenvironment on pathogenesis of the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a systematic review

Cell type Markers (human) Increased production Activity Function Ref.
M1 TAMs CD68+ IL-12, IL-23, TNF-α, CCL-5, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL5 anti-tumor contribution to the Th1 response, inhibition of proliferation, cytotoxic activity [44,45,46]
M2 TAMs CD68+ IL-1ra, IL-10, TGF-β, arginase-1 pro-tumor promotion of tumor progression, angiogenesis, suppression of T cell antitumor immune response [47,48,49,50,51,52,53]
N1 TANs CD11b+, CD14+, CD15+, CD16+, CD62L+, CD66b+ ICAM1, TNF-α anti-tumor cytotoxic activity, increased NET formation [79]
N2 TANs CD11b+, CD14+, CD15+, CD16+, CD62L+, CD66b+ CXCR4, VEGF, MMP-9 pro-tumor promotion of angiogenesis, invasion [77, 78]
MCs CD117+, CD203c+, FcεRI+ histamine, heparin, chondroitin sulfate E, PGD2, tryptase, chymase, CPA1, LTC4, GM-CSF, MMPs, IL-4, TNF-α, cathepsin G pro-tumor promotion of angiogenesis, ECM degradation, stimulation of cancer cell proliferation, recruitment of immune cells [120, 123,124,125,126,127]
MDSCs CD11b+, CD33+, CD14+, CD15+, CD16+, HLA-DR- NO, ROS, iNOS, arginase-1, PD-L1, MMP-9 pro-tumor immunosuppression, inhibition of T cell activation and proliferation, promotion of angiogenesis, degradation of ECM [82,83,84,85,86,87,88, 94, 95]
NK cells CD3-, CD16+, CD56+ IFN-γ, TNF-α, GM-SCF,
IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL10
anti-tumor cytotoxic activity without prior antigen presentation, modulation of adaptive immune response [132,133,134,135, 138,139,140,141]
NKT cells CD3+,CD56+, CD161+, CD1a+, CD16+ IFN-γ, TNF-α, GM-CSF, TGF-β, IL-2 , IL-4, IL-5,
IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17A
anti-tumor cytotoxic activity, antigen-specific immunological memory [142,143,144,145,146]
Tregs CD4+, CD25+, FOXP3+ IL-10, IL-35, TGF-β, VEGF pro-tumor immunosuppression, promotion of angiogenesis [97,98,99, 101, 102]
Platelets CD41+, CD42a+, CD42b+, CD61+ ADP, ATP, calcium, 5-HT, CD63, LAMP1/2, GP-Ib,
P-selectin, integrin αII-β3, fibrinogen, vitronectin, thrombospondin, fibronectin, VWF, MMPs, GLUT3
pro-tumor thrombosis, wound healing, maintaining of homeostasis, vasoconstriction, promotion of cell proliferation, immunoevasion by platelet aggregation [105,106,107, 109,110,111, 113,114,115,116]
CAFs α-SMA+, FAP+,
FSP-1+, CD33-, absent cytokeratin
EGF, HGF, VEGF, CXCL12, CXCL14, CCL5, CCL7, IL-6, IL-17A, MMPs pro-tumor stimulation of tumor growth, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, induction of chemo- and radio-resistance, ECM degradation [12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19]
  1. Abbreviations: TAMs tumor-associated macrophages, TANs tumor-associated neutrophils, MCs mast cells, MDSCs myeloid-derived suppressor cells, NK natural killer cells, NKT natural killer T cells, Tregs regulatory T cells, CAFs cancer-associated fibroblasts