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Table 1 Clinical application of exosomal RNAs as biomarkers

From: The role of exosomal noncoding RNAs in cancer

Cancer type ncRNA Exosome source Cancer outcome Application Purification strategy Reference
Breast cancer miR-105 Serum Enhance cancer progression and metastasis. Poor prognosis Early diagnosis of BC metastasis Ultracentrifugation [29]
Esophageal Cancer miR-93-5p the Blood (Serum/Plasma) Promote cancer cells’
Proliferation. Poor prognosis
Early diagnosis Differential centrifugation and ultracentrifugation [55]
Gastric cancer LINC00152 Plasma samples Not mentioned Early diagnosis Total Exosome Isolation Reagent [54]
Colorectal cancer lncRNA-GAS5 Serum Inhibit CRC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Favorable prognosis Diagnosis and prognosis Differential ultracentrifugation [53]
Triple-negative breast cancer microRNA-373 Serum Inhibit cancer cells’ apoptosis. Poor prognosis Early diagnosis ExoQuick [62]
Ovarian cancer miR-21, miR-141, miR-200a, miR-200c, miR-200b, miR-203, miR-205 miR-214 Sera specimens Poor prognosis Early diagnosis A modified magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) procedure [63]
Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) let-7a, miR-99b, −146a, −155, −191, − 1246 Serum Poor prognosis Therapy monitoring Differential centrifugation and ExoQuick [64]
Prostate cancer (PC) miR-141 miR-375 Serum, Plasma and Urine Promote metastasis
Poor prognosis
Early diagnosis A filter concentrator with a 150-kDa molecular weight cutoff [65]
Gastric cancer LncRNA- ZFAS1 Serum or Sera Enhance GC cell proliferation and migration
Poor prognosis
Early diagnosis Ultracentrifugation [67]
  1. Note: all the ncRNAs as biomarker are upregulated in the related cancers