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Table 1 Overview of exosomal cargos and functions in GC

From: Exosomes in gastric cancer: roles, mechanisms, and applications

Cargo type Exosomal cargo Originated cells Recipient cells Function Reference
Protein BMPs SGC-7901 Pericytes Induce transition into cancer-associated fibroblasts [45]
EGFR SGC-7901 Primary mouse liver cells Promote gastric cancer liver metastasis [46]
TGF-β1 Plasma from GC patients CD4+CD45RA+ naïve T cells Induce Treg cell differentiation [43]
TGF-β SGC-7901 and HGC-27 HucMSCs Trigger differentiation to carcinoma-associated fibroblasts [44]
HMGB1 BGC-823, HGC-27, MGC-803, and SGC-7901 Neutrophils Induce autophagy and pro-tumor activation [8]
GKN1 HFE-145 AGS and MKN1 Inhibit gastric tumorigenesis [47]
CagA CagA-expressing WT-A10 WT-10 and AGS Involved in the development of extragastric disorders associated with CagA-positive H. pylori infection [48]
Apolipoprotein E TAM MFC and MGC-803 Promote cell migration [49]
MET H. pylori-infected AGS TAM Promoted tumor growth and progression [50]
UBR2 p53−/−mBMMSC p53+/+ mBMMSC and MFC Promote cell proliferation, migration, and stemness [51]
TRIM3 Overexpressed MGC-803 and SGC-7901 MGC-803 and SGC-7901 Suppress gastric cancer growth and metastasis [52]
miRNA let-7 miRNA AZ-P7a / Maintain cell malignance [56]
miR-423-5p Overexpressed SGC-7901 and HGC-27 SGC-7901 and HGC-27 Promote cancer growth and metastasis [54]
miR-155-5p Paclitaxel-resistant MGC-803R Paclitaxel-sensitive MGC-803S Promote EMT transition and chemoresistance [55]
miR-130a SGC-7901 HUVECs Promote angiogenesis and tumor growth [57]
miR-27a SGC-7901 CCC-HSF-1 Promote transformation into cancer-associated fibroblasts [23]
miR-451 MKN45 Th17 Increase Th17 differentiation [58]
miR-21-5p MGC-803, MKN-45, HGC-27, and SGC-7901 PMC and HMrSV5 Induce MMT and promote tumor peritoneal metastasis [59]
miR-21 TAM BGC-823 Contributes to cell proliferation [60]
miR-21 TAM MFC and MGC-803 Confer cisplatin resistance [61]
miR-221 GC-MSC HGC-27 Promote cell proliferation and migration [62]
miR-221 BM-MSCs BGC-823 and SGC-7901 Enhance cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and adhesion to the matrix [63]
lncRNA ZFAS1 BGC-823 MKN-28 Enhance cell proliferation and migration [64]
circRNA ciRS-133 SGC-7901 3T3L1 Promote differentiation into brown-like cells [68]