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Table 2 Exosomes extracted from biofluids as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for GC

From: Exosomes in gastric cancer: roles, mechanisms, and applications

Cargo type Exosomal cargo Biofluids Extraction method Identification method Method Clinical value in GC Reference
Protein BARHL2 Gastric juice Commercial kit Not shown qRT-PCR BARHL2 methylation yielded an AUC of 0.923 with 90% sensitivity and 100% specificity [69]
GKN1 Serum Commercial kit TEM ELISA Discriminate GC patients from healthy individuals (AUC = 1.00), patients with hepatocellular (AUC = 1.00) and colorectal carcinomas (AUC = 0.98) [47]
TGF-β1 Plasma Differential centrifugation Western blot, immuno-EM and NTA ELISA Associated with lymph node metastasis [43]
TRIM3 Serum Commercial kit TEM and NTA ELISA, western blot Downregulated in GC and may serve as a biomarker for GC diagnosis [52]
miRNA miR-423-5p Serum Commercial kit TEM, NTA and western blot qRT-PCR Higher diagnostic efficiency than CEA and CA-199;
indicator for poor prognosis
[54]
miR-451 Serum Commercial kit Not shown qRT-PCR indicate poor prognosis of GC patients [58]
miR-217 Plasma Differential centrifugation Not shown qRT-PCR Higher expression in GC patients [71]
miR-23b Plasma Ultracentrifugation TEM miRNA microarray,
qRT-PCR
Predicts the recurrence and prognosis of GC patients in each tumor stage [74]
miR-19b-3p and miR-106a-5p Serum Commercial kit TEM and western blot qRT-PCR Related to GC lymphatic metastasis and TNM stage;
more accurate than AFP and CA19–9 for GC diagnosis
[70]
miR10b-5p, miR195-5p, miR20a-3p, and miR296-5p Serum Commercial kit Not shown miRNA microarray, qRT-PCR Elevated expression in GC patients [24]
miR-424-5p and miR-590-3p Serum Commercial kit TEM, NTA and western blot miRNA profiling,qRT-PCR Effective biomarker for diagnosing the stage of GC progression [72]
miR-21 and miR-1225-5p Peritoneal lavage fluid Differential centrifugation Not shown miRNA microarray,
qRT-PCR
Biomarker for the prediction of peritoneal dissemination [73]
lncRNA lncUEGC1 Plasma Serial centrifugation and discontinuous
iodixanol gradient
TEM, NTA and western blot RNA sequencing,
qPCR
Potential early GC biomarker with higher diagnostic accuracy than CEA [66]
HOTTIP Serum Ultracentrifugation Not shown qRT-PCR Higher diagnostic capability than CEA, CA 19–9 and CA72–4;
correlated with poor overall survival
[65]
ZFAS1 Serum Commercial kit TEM, NTA and western blot qRT-PCR Higher levels in GC patients;
associated with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage
[64]
LINC00152 Plasma Commercial kit TEM qRT-PCR Higher levels in GC patients [10]
circRNA circ-KIAA1244 Plasma Commercial kit Not shown circRNA microarray,
qRT-PCR
Potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for GC [67]