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Fig. 2 | Molecular Cancer

Fig. 2

From: Current perspectives on the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in hepatocellular carcinoma: challenges and opportunities

Fig. 2

The mechanism of immunosuppressive activity of MDSCs in the tumor microenvironment. MDSCs induce differentiation and expansion of Tregs during tumorigenesis; inhibit DC, NK and macrophage polarization to the M2 phenotype; deprive T cells from essential amino acids; and produce oxidative stress to mediate cancer progress. Abbreviations:MDSCs: myeloid-derived suppressor cells; Treg cells: regulatory T cells;NK cells: natural killer cells; CCL2: CC-chemokine ligand 2; DCs: dendritic cell; FOXP3: forkhead box P3; IL-10: interleukin-10; iNOS: inducible nitric oxide synthase; TCR: T-cell receptors; TGF-β: transforming growth factor β

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