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Table 1 Roles of STING activation in cancer

From: STING: a master regulator in the cancer-immunity cycle

Cancer types Treatment information regarding STING activation Biological roles of STING activation in Cancer Reference
Acute meyloid leukemia DMXAA, 450 μg, i.t. Promote DC maturation and enhance CD8+ T cell responses via the induction of type I IFN [44]
Breast cancer Topotecan (TPT, an inhibitor of topoisomerase I), 20 mg/kg, i.p. Olaparib (PARP inhibitor), 50 mg/kg daily, i.p. c-di-GMP, 150 nM, 24 h and c-di-GMP, 0.01 nM, i.p. Mafosfamide, 10 μM Mediate DC activation Increase CD8+ T cell infiltration Activate caspase-3 and kill tumor cell directly, improve CD8+ T cell responses and restrict MDSCs Activate IFN/STAT1 pathway and protect breast cancer cells from genotoxic agents [45] [46] [47] [48]
Colorectal cancer Gamma rays (6 Gy) Induce type III IFN production after gamma-radiation by the activation of the cytosolic DNA sensors-STING-TBK1-IRF1 signaling pathway [49]
Radiation (40 Gy) Promote type I IFN production and contribute to sensing irrated-tumor cells by DC Induce MDSC mobilization which mediates [50]
2′3’cGAMP, 10 μg / X-ray radioresistance in mouse models [51]
Glioma c-di-GMP, 4 μg, i.t. Enhance CD4+ and CD8+ T cell infiltration and migration into the brain via type I IFN signaling and other chemokines [37]
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma Matrigel containing 25 μg cyclic-di-AMP (CDN) Induce type I IFN in the host cells and promote CD8+T cell response [52]
cGAMP, 10 μg/ml, 24 h Facilitate cetuximab mediated NK cell activation and DC maturation [53]
R, R-CDG, 20 μg, i.t. Promote Th1 response and increase IFN-γ+CD8+, but upregulate PD-L1 [54]
R, R-CDG, 15 μg, i.t. Increase the production of type I and II IFN but also promote the expression of PD-1 pathway components [55]
Lung cancer PARP inhibitors Promote infiltration and activation of lymphocytes in NSCLC and SCLC [56, 57]
DMXAA/2′3’-cGAMP, 20 μg/ml, 24 h Re-educate M2 macrophages towards an M1 phenotype in murine NSCLC [58]
cGAMP, 10 μg, i.t. Normalize tumor vasculature and augment the infiltration of CD8+ T cell in LLC tumor [59]
Malignant lymphoma 3′3’-cGAMP, 20 μM, 4 h Induce apoptosis of malignant B cells via IRE-1/XBP-1 pathway [60]
Melanoma Tumor derived DNA(B16), 1 h Induce IFN-β production in APC and is indispensable for T cell activation and expansion [35]
2′3’ cGAMP, 200 nM, i.p. Activate NK cell response [61]
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma EBV infection. Restrict the secretion of GM-CSF and IL-6, thereby suppress the MDSC induction [62]
Ovary cancer 2′3’-c-di-AM(PS) (Rp, Rp), 4 mg/kg, i.p. Increase the infiltration of activated CD8+ T cell into tumors [63]
Pancreatic cancer DMXAA, 300/450 μg, i.t. Promote trafficking and activation of tumor-killing T cells, decrease the infiltration of Treg, and reprogram immune-suppressive macrophages [64]
Prostate Cancer Cytosolic DNA generated by endonuclease MUS81 Induce type I IFN expression and mobilize phagocytes and promote T cell responses [65]
c-di-GMP, 25 μg, i.t. Provoke abscopal immunity [66]
Tongue squamous cell carcinoma HPV infection. Enhance Treg infiltration through upregulation of CCL22 expression in HPV+ tongue squamous cells [67]
  1. i.t. Intratumoral injection
  2. i.p. Intraperitoneal injection
  3. R, R-CDG Synthetic CDN RP, RP dithio c-di-GMP
  4. NSCLC Non-small cell lung cancer
  5. SCLC Small cell lung cancer
  6. EBV Epstein-Barr virus
  7. HPV Human papilloma virus