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Table 1 Combination TAMs-directed therapies with checkpoint blockades in selected clinical trials for cancer therapy

From: Harnessing tumor-associated macrophages as aids for cancer immunotherapy

ActionTAM-targeted agentCheckpoint blockadeClinical phase (status)Tumor typeEffectClinical trials
Targeting TAM recruitment and survivalEmactuzumab (CSF1R inhibitor)Atezolizumab (PD-L1 antibody)Phase I (Recruiting)Locally advanced or metastatic solid tumorsNANCT02323191
ARRY-382 (CSF1R antagonists)Pembrolizumab (PD-1 antibody)Phase I/II (Active, not recruiting)Advanced solid tumorsNANCT02880371
Pexidartinib (anti-CSF1R)Durvalumab (PD-L1 antibody)Phase I (Active, not recruiting)Colorectal cancer; Pancreatic cancer; Metastatic cancer; Advanced cancerNANCT02777710
SNFX-6352 (CSF1R antagonists)Durvalumab (PD-L1 antibody)Phase I (Recruiting)Solid tumor; Metastatic tumor; Locally advanced malignant neoplasm; Unresectable malignant neoplasmSafe, Well-toleratedNCT03238027
BLZ945 (CSF1R antagonists)PDR001 (anti-PD-1; Novartis)Phase I/II (Recruiting)Advanced solid tumorsNANCT02829723
Cabiralizumab (CSF1R antagonists)Nivolumab (anti-PD-1)Phase I (Recruiting)Advanced malignanciesSafe, Well-toleratedNCT03158272
AMG820 (CSF1R antagonists)Pembrolizumab (PD-1 antibody)Phase I/II (Active, not recruiting)Pancreatic cancer; Colorectal cancer; Non-small cell lung cancerNANCT02713529
TrabectedinDurvalumab (PD-L1 antibody)Phase I (Recruiting)Ovarian carcinoma; Soft tissue sarcomaNANCT03085225
Reprogramming TAMs to antitumor macrophagesAPX005M (CD40 agonistic antibody)Nivolumab (anti-PD-1)Phase I/II (Recruiting)Non-small cell lung cancer; Metastatic melanomaNANCT03123783
Selicrelumab (CD40 agonist)Atezolizumab (PD-L1 antibody)Phase I (Recruiting)Solid tumorsNANCT02304393
IPI-549 (PI3Kγ inhibitors)Nivolumab (anti-PD-1)Phase I (Recruiting)Advanced solid tumor; non-small cell lung cancer; melanoma; breast cancerNANCT02637531
TTI-621 (SIRPα-IgG1 Fc)Nivolumab (anti-PD-1);
Pembrolizumab (PD-1 antibody);
Atezolizumab (PD-L1 antibody);
Durvalumab (PD-L1 antibody)
Phase I (Recruiting)Solid tumors; melanoma; merkel-cell carcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma; breast carcinomaNANCT02890368
TTI-621 (SIRPα-IgG4 Fc)Nivolumab (anti-PD-1);
Pembrolizumab (PD-1 antibody);
Phase I (Recruiting)Lymphoma; myelomaNANCT03530683
GSK3145095 (RIP inhibitor)Pembrolizumab (PD-1 antibody)Phase I/II (Recruiting)Neoplasms; pancreaticNANCT03681951
NKTR262 (TLR7/8 agonist)Nivolumab (anti-PD-1)Phase I/II (Recruiting)Melanoma; merkel cell carcinoma; breast cancer; renal cell carcinoma; colorectal cancerNANCT03435640
  1. NA Not available, CSF1R Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor, SIRPα Signal regulatory protein alpha, RIP1 Receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinase 1, TLRs Toll-like receptors