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Table 1 Human studies investigating the role of microbiomes in pancreatic cancer

From: Role of the microbiome in occurrence, development and treatment of pancreatic cancer

Study designPatients or SamplesContentConclusionRefs
Case-control study·HOMIM: 10 PC & 10 controls·16 of 410 bacterial taxaSignificant changes observed in the microbial composition between pancreatic cancer patients and healthy controls.[11]
·qPCR: 28 PC & 27 chronic pancreatitis patients & 28 controls·Neisseria elongata and Streptococcus mitis
Meta-analysis8 studies of periodontitis or edentulismRR for periodontitis and PC was 1.74 (95% CI 1.41–2.15] and 1.54 (95% CI 1.16–2.05) for edentulismBoth periodontitis and edentulism appear to be associated with PC, even after adjusting for common risk factors.[16]
Prospective cohort studyBlood samples from 405 PC & 416 controlsAntibodies against Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 53978Individuals with high levels of antibodies against Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 53978 had higher risk of PC.[17]
Case-control study16S rRNA of 30 PHC patients and 25 healthy controlsMicrobiome diversity of the tongue coatThe microbiota dysbiosis of the tongue coat in PHC patients was identified.[18]
Cohort studyCyst fluid and plasma of suspected PCNBacterial 16S DNA copy number and IL-1βIntracystic bacterial 16S DNA copy number and IL-1β protein quantity were significantly higher in IPMN.[19]
Case-control studyBlood samples from 92 PC & 30 gastric cancer & 35 colorectal cancer & 27 controlsIgG antibodies against HpSuggested an association between Hp infection and pancreatic cancer.[20]
Case-control study·16S rRNA gene of 14 PC & 14 controlsHp, IL-6 and CRPPC patients had higher IL-6 and CRP in blood and a higher incidence of Hp in duodenum[21]
·Blood samples
·Urea breath test
Meta-analysisBlood samples of 580 PC & 626 controlsHp and CagAThe evidence of CagA strain-specific associations is respective.[22]
Meta-analysis117 meta-analytical or pooled reports of the association between specific risk factors and PC risk.Hp has estimated population attributable fractions is 4–25%.Hp infection is the major risk factors associated with PC.[23]
Meta-analysis1003 PC & 1754 controls in 8 case-control studiesOR = 1.45 (95% CI: 1.09–1.92) between Hp and PC under the random effects model.Hp infection can significantly increase the risk of developing pancreatic cancer.[24]
Meta-analysis2335 patients in 6 studiesAOR = 1.38 (95%CI: 1.08–1.75; P = 0.009) between Hp and PCA significant association between Hp seropositivity and development of pancreatic cancer was seen[25]
Meta-analysis1083 PC & 1950 controls in 9 studiesOR = 1.47 (95%CI: 1.22–1.77) between Hp and PCH. pylori infection is significantly, albeit weakly, associated with pancreatic cancer development.[26]
Nested case-control study104 cases randomly selected subjects among 507 developed PC, 262 cases from 730 controlsHp and its CagA proteinHelicobacter pylori infection is not associated with development of PC.[27]
Prospective cohort study87 PC & 263 controls from residents born from 1921 to 1949 in Malmö, SwedenHpNo association between Hp infection and the risk for PC was found.[28]
Meta-analysis65,155 observations in 3 cohort studies and 6 nested case-control studiesOR  =  1.09(95%CI: 0.81–1.47)The linkage of PC to Hp infection was not warranted on the whole.[29]
Prospective cohort study19,924 participants including 126 PCCandidaIndividuals with Candida-related lesions had a 70 80% excess risk of developing PC.[30]
Population-based cohort study34,829 patients from the National Health Insurance system of TaiwanCandidaThe risks of pancreatic cancer was significantly higher in the Candida Infection group.[31]
  1. AOR, adjusted odds ratio; CagA, cytotoxin-associated gene-A; CI, confidence interval; CRP, C-reactive protein; HOMIM, Human Oral Microbiological Identification Microarrays; Hp, Helicobacter pylori; IgG, Immunoglobulin G; IL, interleukin; IPMN, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm; PC, pancreatic cancer; PCN, pancreatic cystic neoplasm; PHC, pancreatic head carcinoma; Porphyromonas gingivalis ATTC 53978, a pathogenic periodontal bacteria; qPCR, Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction; RR, relative risk