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Table 1 Summary of circRNAs and their functions in the TME

From: Roles of circRNAs in the tumour microenvironment

RolesCircRNAsOriginExpressionFunctionsTargetsReferences
mediating tumour immune surveillancecircRNAsexogenous-probably activated antitumour immunityRIG-I/ immunocytes[65]
circRNAsexosomes-probably regulated antitumour immunityimmunocytes[58, 70, 72, 73]
circ-0020397CRCupinhibited the activation and proliferation of T cells, and promoted the viability and invasion of CRC cellsmiR-138/ PD-L1[79]
circARSP91HCCupenhanced the cytotoxicity of NK cell and upregulated NK-mediated immune responsesULBP1[92]
circ-0000977PC-inhibited the killing ability of NKmiR-153 /HIF1α, ADAM10[168]
promoting angiogenesiscirc0001429bladder canceruppromoted cell metastasis and angiogenesismiR-205-5p /VEGFA[99]
circSCAF11gliomaupstimulated angiogenesis and tumourigenesismiR-421/SP1/ VEGFA[100]
circRNA cZNF292gliomauppromoted cell proliferation and angiogenesisVEGFR-1/2, p-VEGFR-1/2 and EGFR[101]
circRNA cZNF292hepatomauppromoting cell proliferation, VM, and radioresistanceSOX9, Wnt/β-catenin[103]
circ-SHKBP1IGECsupstimulated angiogenesismiR-544a/ FOXP1/ AGGF1 or miR-379/ FOXP2/ AGGF1[20]
circ-0010729HUVECsuppromoted vascular endothelial cell proliferationmiR-186 /HIF1α[104]
circ-002136GECsupstimulated angiogenesisFUS/circ-002136 /miR-138-5p /SOX13 feedback loop[105]
circ-DICER1GECsuppromoted angiogenesisMOV10/circ-DICER1 /miR-103a-3p (miR-382-5p) /ZIC4 Hsp90β/PI3K/Akt[106]
inhibiting angiogenesiscircHIPK3bladder cancerdowninhibited cell migration, invasion, and angiogenesismiR-558/ HPSE/ MMP-9 and VEGF[107]
circSMARCA5GBMdowninhibited angiogenesisVEGFA, SRSF1 
circ-0003575HUVECsupinhibiting angiogenesispotential circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network[110]
improving endothelial cell permeabilitycircRNA IARSexosomes derived from PC cellsupenhanced cell invasion, metastasis and endothelial cell permeabilitymiR-122/ RhoA/ F-actin[112]
hypoxiacircDENND4Cbreast canceruppromoted cell proliferation- 
circDENND4Cbreast canceruppromoted cell glycolysis, migration, invasion and proliferationmiR-200b and miR-200c[116]
circDENND2Agliomauppromoted cell migration and invasionmiR-625-5p[169]
circ-0000977PC-mediated immune escapemiR-153/ HIF1α[168]
circ-0010729HUVECsupenhanced cell proliferation, migration and suppressed apoptosismiR-186/ HIF1α[104]
circRNA cZNF292hepatomauppromoted cell proliferation, VM, and radioresistanceSOX9, Wnt/β-catenin[103]
causing ECM remodellingcirc-0000096gastric cancerdownaffected cell growth and migrationVEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9[120]
circLMNB1CRCuppromoted cell dissemination, invasion and EMTMMP-2 and MMP-9[121]
circDENND4Cbreast cancerupsuppressed cell migration and invasionMMP-2 and MMP-9[116]
circ-0007334PDACuppromoted cell invasionmiR-144-3p and miR-577/ COL1A1, MMP-7[122]
circRNA cSMARCA5HCCdowninhibited cell proliferation and migrationmiRNA-17-3p and miRNA-181b-5p/ TIMP-3[124]
exosomescircRNA IARSexosomes derived from PC cellsuppromotedcell invasion and metastasismiR-122[112]
circ-DBexosomes derived from adipocytesuppromoted tumourigenesis and metastasis of HCCmiR-34a/ USP7/ cyclin A2[135]
ciRS-133 (circ-0010522)exosomes derived from GC cellsuppromoted white adipose browning in patients with gastric cancermiR-133/ PRDM16[119]