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Table 1 A summary of mRNA modification and cancer stem cells

From: mRNA modification orchestrates cancer stem cell fate decisions

Cancer cell types RNA modification Expression profiles in CSC Molecular mechanisms References
Leukemia A-to-I Increased A-to-I editing induced alternative splicing of GSK3β, resulting in enhanced β-catenin expression [49, 50]
Multiple myeloma A-to-I Increased A-to-I editing occurred in the exon of GLI1 mRNA, leading to a novel GLI1 protein with a point mutation [51]
Leukemia A-to-I Increased A-to-I editing occurred in the 3’UTR of MDM2 mRNA and miR-155 would no longer bind to the edited 3’UTR region [52]
Leukemia A-to-I Increased A-to-I editing in let-7 precursor impaired let-7 biogenesis [36]
Skin cancer m5C Decreased NSUN2-deletion impaired protein synthesis [53]
Breast cancer m6A Decreased ALKBH5 reduced m6A level of NANOG, which stabilized NANOG mRNA [33]
Glioblastoma m6A Decreased Knockdown of METTL3 or METTL14 in CSCs increased the expression of ADAM19 and EPHA3 [34]
Glioblastoma m6A Decreased ALKBH5 demethylated FOXM1 mRNA transcripts and stabilized FOXM1 [35]
Glioblastoma m6A Increased SOX2 was a target for METTL3 and methylated SOX2 mRNA displayed prolonged stability [54]
Leukemia m6A Decreased Treatment with FTO inhibitor R-2HG induced the degradation of MYC/CEBPA mRNAs [55]
Leukemia m6A Increased METTL14 catalyzed the m6A modification in oncogenic factors MYC and MYB, increasing their mRNA stability [56]