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Table 2 Role of aberrant deposition of m5C in cancer. AML: Acute myeloid leukaemia; ALL: Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia; HCC: Hepatocellular Carcinoma

From: The role of m6A, m5C and Ψ RNA modifications in cancer: Novel therapeutic opportunities

Factor/Enzyme Cancer type Alteration Mechanism Ref
Writers
NOP2 Breast cancer Upregulated Unknown. [190]
Leukaemia Increased NSUN1 mediates chromatin structures that modulate 5-AZA resistance. [216]
Lung adenocarcinoma Upregulated Unknown. [192]
Prostate cancer Upregulated Unknown. [191]
NSUN2 Bladder cancer Upregulated NSUN2 targets HDGF 3' UTR. [157]
Skin, breast and colon cancer Upregulated Unknown. [194]
Squamous cell carcinoma Upregulated Protects tRNA from cleavage and increases cell survival [33]
Gallbladder carcinoma Upregulated NSUN2 interaction with RPL6. [197]
Gastric cancer Upregulated Repressing p57(Kip2) in an m5C-dependent manner. [200]
Head and neck squamous carcinoma Upregulated Unknown. [199]
Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma Upregulated Increased methylation and stability of NMR lncRNA. [172]
Ovarian cancer Upregulated Unknown. [195]
Several cancers Increase copy number Unknown. [198]
NSUN3 Leukaemia Undetermined NSUN3 direct binding to hnRNPK. [216]
Lung Cancer Genomic aberrations Unknown. [346]
NSUN4 Breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer Susceptibility Loci Unknown. [202]
HCC High expression Methylation processes. [203]
NSUN5 Glioblastoma Downregulation Ribosome structural changes that lead to stress adaptive translational programmes. [24]
NSUN7 Low Grade Gliomas High expression Unknown. [204]
DNMT2 Leukaemia Undetermined DNMT2 direct binding to hnRNPK. [216]
Several cancer types Upregulated and somatic mutations Inhibition of m5C deposition in tRNAs. [201]
Erasers/5-hydroxymethylcytosine writers
TET1 Glioblastoma Upregulated Unrelated to RNA hydroxymethylation. [213]
TET2 Glioblastoma Downregulated Unrelated to RNA hydroxymethylation. [214]
AML Point mutations Unknown. [210]
TET3 Glioblastoma Downregulated Unknown. [215]
TET Family Hematologic malignancies Several Unrelated to RNA hydroxymethylation. [212]
TET1/TET2 HCC Downregulated Unrelated to RNA hydroxymethylation. [347]
ALKBH1 ALL Upregulated Unknown. [211]
Gastric cancer Upregulated Unknown. [348]
Readers
YBX1 Bladder cancer Upregulated YB1 translocation to the nucleus induces acquisition of drug resistance by upregulating expression of multidrug resistance-1 (MDR-1) gene. [349]
Breast cancer Upregulated YB1 interacts and inhibits ESR1-FOXA1 complex. [350]
Several cancer types Upregulated Multifunctional oncoprotein. [351]
ALYREF HCC High expression Cell cycle regulation and mitosis. [203]
Oral squamous cell carcinoma High expression Unknown. [352]
Several cancer types High expression Unknown. [353]
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