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Table 3 Role of pseudouridylases in cancer. AML: Acute myeloid leukaemia; CLL: Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; HCC: Hepatocellular Carcinoma

From: The role of m6A, m5C and Ψ RNA modifications in cancer: Novel therapeutic opportunities

Factor/Enzyme Cancer type Regulation Mechanism Ref
DKC1 Breast cancer Downregulated DKC1 downregulation leads to an impairment of hTR stabilization, telomerase activity and proper rRNA pseudouridylation. [256, 257]
CLL Downregulated Lower telomerase activity and lower expression of sheltering components, which facilitates telomeric damages. [266]
Colorectal and lung cancer Sporadic mutations Unknown. [254]
Colorectal cancer Upregulated DKC1 increases the expression of TERC and rRNA pseudouridylation, promoting proliferation. [258, 259]
Glioblastoma Upregulated DKC1 upregulates the expression of N-cadherin, MMP-2, HIF1A, CDK2 and cyclin E. [264]
Head and neck cancer Upregulated Unknown. [262, 263]
HCC Upregulated Unknown. [265]
Lung cancer Upregulated High levels of TERC, leading an increased aggressiveness and poor prognosis. [260]
Multiple myeloma Genomic mutation Telomere length and expression levels of small nucleolar and small Cajal body-specific RNAs. [268,269,270]
Prostate cancer Upregulated Increased abundance of several H/ACA snoRNAs. [261]
Skin cancer Sporadic mutations Unknown. [255]
  Pituitary cancer Sporadic mutations Defected translation of specific mRNAs harbouring internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) elements, including the tumour suppressor p27. [277]
PUS1 Melanoma and breast cancer No change Interaction of steroid receptor RNA activator 1 (SRA1) with retinoic acid receptor-γ (RARγ) in melanoma cells and with oestrogen receptor (ER) in breast cancer cell lines. [282]
PUS7 Myelodysplastic syndromes/ AML Loss Reduced bioproduction of tRNA-derived fragments leading to significantly higher protein synthesis. [230, 285]
PUS10 Prostate cancer No change PUS10 is a coactivator of TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis. [283]
Lung cancer Genomic alterations Unknown. [284]