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Table 1 Summary of current drugs targeting endothelium-dependent angiogenesis and/or Vasculogenic mimicry

From: Mechanisms of vasculogenic mimicry in hypoxic tumor microenvironments

Potential drugs Molecular target or function Effect on EDV Effect on VM reference
Angiogenesis inhibitor
 bevacizumab VEGF Inhibition No effect [206, 207]
 endostatin Promote apoptosis of endothelial cells Inhibition No effect [208, 209]
 Sunitinib RTK, VEGF-R1, VEGF-R2, VEGF-R3, PDGFR-β, KIT, FLT-3, RET Inhibition No effect [210, 211]
 gefitinib EGFR Inhibition No effect [212, 213]
Vasculogenic mimicry inhibitors
 Galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate) TGF-β1, Akt, Flk No effect inhibition [214]
 Dequalinium (DQA) modified paclitaxel plus ligustrazine micelles VEGF, MMP2, TGF-β1, E-cadherin No effect inhibition [215]
 Vinorelbine cationic liposomes modified with wheat germ MMP-2, MMP-9,FAK\PI3K No effect inhibition [216]
 multifunctional targeting epirubicin liposomes PI3K, MMP-2, MMP-9, FAK, VE-cadherin No effect inhibition [217]
 R 8 modified epirubicin-dihydroartemisinin liposomes VE-cadherin/TGF-β/ MMP-2 / HIF-1 No effect Inhibition [218]
 Tivantinib (ARQ 197) Vnculin / RhoC No effect Inhibition [219]
 daunorubicin and dioscin codelivery liposomes modified with PFV MMP-2 / VE-cadherin /TGF-β/HIF-1α No effect Inhibition [220]
 Niclosamide miR-124 / STAT3 No effect Inhibition [221]
Angiogenesis and Vasculogenic mimicry inhibitors
 Axitinib VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, PDGFRβ inhibition inhibition [222, 223]
 Cilengitide NRP-1, v5 integrin Inhibition Inhibition [224, 225]
 Imatinib PDGF,VEGF inhibition inhibition [205, 226]
 Trastuzumab HER2 (VEGF, Cell cycle etc.) Inhibition inhibition [227]
 Entinostat HADC (Histone deacetylase, (SERPINF1), VEGFA inhibition inhibition [228, 229], [230]
 Verteporfin YAP, TEAD Ang2, MMP2, VE-cadherin, α-SMA Inhibition Inhibition [231, 232]
 cRGD-functionalized nanoparticles αvβ3 inhibition inhibition [233]