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Table 1 Autophagy-related (Atg) genes and their protein function in autophagy

From: Autophagy and autophagy-related proteins in cancer

Genes Protein function description References
Mammals Yeast
(Unc51-like kinase 1 and 2)
Atg1 Is part of the ULK-ATG13-ATG101-FIP200 complex and phosphorylates Beclin1; interacts with Atg13; is involved in initiation of autophagy, membrane targeting, membrane curvature sensing, and lipid vesicle tethering [51,52,53,54]
ATG2A/B Atg2 Is part of the ATG9/ATG12-WIPI complex, which is important for ATG9 recruitment to expand autophagosome [55, 56]
ATG3 Atg3 E2-like enzyme in LC3 lipidation; autocatalyzes itself to form ATG12-ATG3 complex for maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis [57,58,59]
ATG4A-D Atg4 Cysteine protease to process Atg8 by removing its last amino acid; and deconjugate Atg8–PE; involved in LC3 activation and delipidation [60, 61]
ATG5 Atg5 Is part of the ATG12-ATG5 complex involved in autophagosome formation/elongation, acting as an E3-like enzyme in LC3 lipidation; interacts with Atg16 and plays crucial roles in autophagy. [62, 63]
Beclin1 Atg6 Is subunit of the VPS34-PI3K complex; recruits Atg14 or Vps38; interacts with Bcl-2; and lipid binding and membrane deformation [64, 65]
ATG7 Atg7 E1-like enzyme interacting with E2 enzyme Atg10 or Atg3 involved in LC3 and ATG12 conjugation; and forms a thioester bond with Atg8 [66,67,68]
MAP 1 LC3A-C, GABARAPs, GATE-16 Atg8 Modifier; Ubiquitin-like module conjugated to PE and used as autophagosome marker; recognizes the cargo-specific adaptors; and in vitro membrane tethering [69,70,71]
ATG9L1/L2 Atg9 Transmembrane protein; interacts with ATG2-WIPI complex; shuttles between PAS and peripheral organelles to deliver lipids/factors during phagophore expansion; and self-interaction [72, 73]
ATG10 Atg10 E2-like enzyme in ATG12 conjugation with Atg5 [74,75,76]
ATG12 Atg12 Modifier; ubiquitin-like module conjugated to Atg5; forms an E3 complex with Atg5 and Atg16; and interacts with Atg3 [59, 62, 77]
ATG13 Atg13 Is part of the ULK-ATG13-ATG101-FIP200 complex involved in initiation of autophagy; targets mTOR signaling pathway; interact with Atg1 and bridges Atg1 and Atg17-Atg31-Atg29; recruits the Vps34 complex via Atg14; binds to LC3; and interacts with Atg101 [78,79,80]
Atg14 Is subunit of VPS34-PI3K complex; interacts with Beclin1 to assemble the autophagic-specific complex; membrane targeting and membrane curvature sensing; and promote membrane fusion [81,82,83]
ATG16L1/L2 Atg16 Binds to ATG5-ATG12 complex acting as part of the E3 enzyme complex [84,85,86]
RB1CC1/ FIP200 Atg17 Is part of the ULK-ATG13-ATG101-FIP200 complex involved in initiation of autophagy; interacts with Atg13 and Atg9; forms ternary complex with Atg31 and Atg29; and senses membrane curvature [53, 78, 87]
WIPI1–4 Atg18 Is part of the ATG2-WIPI complex which is important for ATG9 recruitment to autophagosome; binds to PI3P; required for the retrograde transport of Atg9; and complexes with Atg2 [88, 89]
ATG101 Interact with Atg13 and forms the ULK-ATG13-ATG101-FIP200 complex [90, 91]
  1. -, This protein has not been identified