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Table 1 Important features that help in differentiating M1 from M2 macrophages

From: Non-coding RNAs regulation of macrophage polarization in cancer

Factors M1 Macrophage M2 Macrophage
Action Pro-inflammatory, anti-microbial Anti-inflammatory,
Induce extracellular matrix
Action in tumor-microenvironment Anti-tumorigenic Pro-tumorigenic
Activation Classical (Th1) Alternative (Th2)
Stimuli IFN-y, LPS, GM-CSF IL-4, IL-13, M-CSF, Glucocorticoids
Cytokines and chemokines release IFN-γ, IL-8, TNF-α, IL-1β, RANTES (CCL5), CXCL10 IL-10, IL-13, CCL17, CCL18, CCL22
Antigen presentation Yes No
Nitric oxide and ROS production High Low